Pertussis is an acute infection of the respiratory tract caused by Bordetella pertussis. The word pertussis means “violent cough,” which aptly describes the most consistent and prominent feature of the illness. The inspiratory sound made at the end of an episode of paroxysmal coughing gives rise to the common name for the illness, “whooping cough.


Diphtheria is a nasopharyngeal and skin infection caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Toxigenic strains of C. diphtheriae produce a protein toxin that causes systemic toxicity, myocarditis, and polyneuropathy. The toxin is associated with the formation of pseudomembranes in the pharynx during respiratory diphtheria Mode of transmission The secretions and discharges from infected person or carrier are


Polycythemia vera is a type of blood cancer. It causes your bone marrow to make too many red blood cells. These excess cells thicken your blood, slowing its flow, which may cause serious problems, such as blood clots. PV is a clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorder in which phenotypically normal red cells, granulocytes, and platelets


Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is an enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus and a member of the family Paramyxoviridae. Epidemiology With an attack rate approaching 100% among susceptible individuals, HRSV is a major respiratory pathogen among young children (particularly those 2–3 months of age) and the foremost cause of lower respiratory disease among infants. HRSV accounts


Rhinoviruses are nonenveloped, single-stranded RNA viruses in the family Picornaviridae that together are the major cause of the “common cold” (up to 50% of cases). The three species of rhinovirus (A, B, and C) include around 160 recognized types of human rhinovirus that differ according to their surface proteins. Modes of transmission Rhinoviruses are spread

Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

Normal menstruation typically occurs every 28 days ±7 days. Cycles with intervals longer than 35 days describe a state of oligomenorrhea. Menorrhagia is defined as prolonged or heavy cyclic menstruation. Objectively, menses lasting longer than 7 days or exceeding 80 mL of blood loss. Metrorrhagia describes intermenstrual bleeding. Hypomenorrhea there is diminished flow or shortening


Molluscum contagiosum virus is an obligate human pathogen that causes distinctive proliferative skin lesions. The virus occurs throughout the world, most commonly causing disease in childhood. In hot countries where children are lightly dressed and in close contact with one another, spread within households is not uncommon. The age of peak incidence is reported as


Tetanus is an acute disease manifested by skeletal muscle spasm and autonomic nervous system disturbance. It is caused by a powerful neurotoxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium tetani Causes C. tetani is an anaerobic, gram-positive, spore-forming rod whose spores are highly resilient and can survive readily in the environment throughout the world. Spores resist boiling


Cellulitis is inflammation, usually infective, of subcutaneous tissue Cellulitis is a common, potentially serious bacterial skin infection. The affected skin appears swollen and red and is typically painful and warm to the touch.Cellulitis usually affects the skin on the lower legs, but it can occur in the face, arms and other areas. Causes Cellulitis occurs

Vaginal fungal infection(candidiasis)

This infection is most commonly caused by Candida albicans, which can be found in the vaginas of asymptomatic patients and is a commensal of the mouth, rectum, and vagina. Risk factors Warmer climates Obese patients Immunosuppression Diabetes mellitus Pregnancy Recent broad-spectrum antibiotic use Oral-genital sex Oral contraceptives or hormone therapy Oral sex Douching Cigarette smoking


Laryngitis is an inflammation of your voice box (larynx) Causes Viral infections. Bacterial invasion takes place with Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Hemolytic streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus. Exanthemata fevers, such as measles, mumps, and chickenpox. Chronic sinusitis Excessive alcohol use Habitual overuse of your voice (such as in singers or cheerleaders, by speaking too much, speaking


Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute, frequently severe, and fulminant polyradiculoneuropathy that is autoimmune in nature in which your body’s immune system attacks your nerves.  Causes GBS appears days or weeks after a respiratory or digestive tract infection. COVID-19 virus Swine influenza vaccine Recent surgery Vaccination Influenza vaccinations Childhood vaccinations  Rabies vaccine Most commonly, infection with


DELAYED PUBERTY Puberty is said to be delayed when the breast tissue and/or pubic hair have not appeared by 13–14 years or menarche appears as late as 16 years. Causes of delayed puberty Constitutional delay Chemical farming -Insecticide,Pesticide,Rodenticide,Weedicide Environmental toxin Junk food Too much exercise Severe lack of eating (anorexia) Chronic illness Malnutrition Primary hypothyroidism

Puberty and Adolescence

Puberty and Adolescence Biological Sequential Events Observed during Puberty Adolescence is the age between 10 and 19 years. Puberty is the period of transition from childhood to adult sexual maturation. It is the process of biological, psychological and physical development through which sexual reproduction becomes possible. Progression occurs through sequential changes described as thelarche →


PITYRIASIS VERSICOLOR   (TINEA VERSICOLOR)-Fungal infection  DEFINITION This is a mild, chronic infection of the skin caused by Malassezia yeasts, and characterized by discrete or confluent, scaly, discoloured or depigmented areas, mainly on the upper trunk. CAUSATIVE AGENT Pityrosporum ovale and P. orbiculare Malassezia furfur Colonization by these species is especially dense in the scalp, the


  LICHEN PLANUS (LP) Lichen planus , the most typical and best characterized lichenoid dematosis, is an idiopathic inflammatory skin disease affecting the skin and mucosal membranes, often with a chronic course with relapses and periods of remission. CAUSES Drugs-including antimicrobials, antihypertensives, antimalarials, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, diuretics, metals, non‐ steroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) and more recently


MUCORMYCOSIS (Black Fungi) Mucormycosis represents a group of life-threatening infections caused by fungi of the order Mucorales. Among the Mucorales, Rhizopus oryzae ,  Rhizopus microsporus, Rhizomucor pusillus, Lichtheimia corymbifera common causes of mucormycosis. PATHOGENESIS The Mucorales are ubiquitous environmental fungi to which humans are constantly exposed. These fungi cause infection primarily in patients with diabetes,


PNEUMONIA Pneumonia is defined as acute inflammation of the lung parenchyma distal to the terminal bronchioles (consisting of the respiratory bronchiole, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs and alveoli). Causes 1.Inhalation of the microbes present in the air 2.Aspiration of organisms from the nasopharynx or oropharynx. 3.Haematogenous spread from a distant focus of infection. 4.Direct spread from

Infectious Mononucleosis

Infectious Mononucleosis Causative agent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the cause of heterophile-positive infectious mononucleosis (IM), which is characterized by fever, sore throat, lymphadenopathy, and atypical lymphocytosis. These infections are most common in early childhood, with a second peak during late adolescence. By adulthood, more than 90% of individuals have been infected and have antibodies to


IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA Iron deficiency anemia is due to insufficient iron.In Iron deficiency anemia  hemoglobin synthesis is impaired, resulting in anemia and reduced o2 delivery to tissue. CAUSES OF IRON DEFICIENCY Rapid growth in infancy or adolescence Pregnancy Gastrointestinal bleeding can result from regular use of some over-the-counter pain relievers, especially aspirin. Erythropoietin therapy Chronic

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia [BLOOD CANCER]

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia [BLOOD CANCER] Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is a type of cancer of the white blood cells and bone marrow . It is the most common type of cancer in children, and treatments result in a good chance for a cure. Age of occurance-newbrorn-14years Causes Exposure to ionizing radiation or to chemicals Nuclear reactor accident


ADENOID HYPERTROPHY (ENLARGED ADENOIDS) Adenoid hypertrophy is the unusual growth of Adenoid. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY The nasopharyngeal tonsil, commonly called “adenoids”, is situated at the junction of the roof and posterior wall of the nasopharynx. It is composed of vertical ridges of lymphoid tissue separated by deep clefts. Adenoid tissue is present at birth, shows physiological enlargement


THALASSEMIA SYNDROMES The thalassemia syndromes are inherited disorders of α- or β-globin  biosynthesis. When the words “trait,” “minor,” “intermedia,” or “major” are used, these words describe how severe the thalassemia is. A person who has ” thalassemia trait” may not have any symptoms at all or may have only mild anemia, while a person with


 PEMPHIGUS VULGARIS Pemphigus refers to a group of autoantibody-mediated intraepidermal blistering diseases characterized by loss of cohesion between epidermal cells (a process termed acantholysis). Manual pressure to the skin of these patients may elicit the separation of the epidermis (Nikolsky’s sign). Associated diseases PV has been associated with many other autoimmune diseases, particularly thyroid disease

Cirrhosis of Liver

Cirrhosis of Liver Cirrhosis of Liver consist of the development of fibrosis to the point that there is architectural distortion with the formation of regenerative nodules. This results in a decrease in hepatocellular mass, and thus function, and an alteration of blood flow. Causes Alcoholism Cardiac Cirrhosis Chronic Viral Hepatitis Inherited Metabolic Liver Disease Hepatitis

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome DEFINITION Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a disorder characterized by persistent and unexplained fatigue resulting in severe impairment in daily functioning. The majority of patients (75%) are women, generally 30–45 years old. Causes Predisposing Factors Childhood trauma (physical, emotional abuse; emotional and physical neglect) Physical inactivity during childhood Premorbid psychiatric illness or


URTICARIA AND ANGIOEDEMA  DEFINITION Urticaria and angioedema represent the same pathophysiologic process occurring at different levels of the skin. Urticaria involves dilation of vascular structures in the superficial dermis. Angioedema originates from the deeper dermis and subcutaneous tissues. Urticaria can occur on any area of the body as well-circumscribed wheals with erythematous raised serpiginous borders

Kawasaki Disease

Kawasaki Disease Kawasaki disease (KD) is characterized by multisystem involvement and inflammation of small- to medium-sized arteries with resulting aneurysm formation. KD is the second most common vasculitis of childhood. KD most commonly occurs in children younger than 5 years of age, with a peak between 2 and 3 years. A seasonal variability has been


HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS INFECTIONS DEFINITION Herpes simplex viruses (HSV-1, HSV-2; Herpesvirus hominis) produce a variety of infections involving mucocutaneous surfaces, the central nervous system (CNS), and visceral organs. RISK FACTOR Oral sex Commercial sex worker Cigarette smoking Sex during menses Intrauterine device Early age of sexual intercourse New or multiple sexual partners Women Sexual activity

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an immune-mediated chronic intestinal condition. Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD) are the two major types of IBD. Ulcerative colitis. This condition involves inflammation and ulcers along the superficial lining of large intestine (colon) and rectum. Crohn’s disease. This type of IBD is characterized by inflammation of the lining


DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS Sugar is a main source of energy for the cells that make up your muscles and other tissues. Normally, insulin helps sugar enter your cells. Without enough insulin, your body can’t use sugar properly for energy. This prompts the release of hormones that break down fat as fuel, which produces acids known as

Wilson’s Disease

Wilson’s Disease Wilson’s disease is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the ATP7B gene. Wilson’s disease causes copper to accumulate in your liver, brain and other vital organs. Copper plays a key role in the development of healthy nerves, bones, collagen and the skin pigment melanin. Normally, copper is absorbed from your food,

Uterine fibroids(Leiomyomas )

Uterine fibroids(Leiomyomas ) Leiomyomas are benign smooth muscle neoplasms that typically originate from the myometrium. They are often referred to as uterine myoma Causes 1.Estrogen Effects -Uterine leiomyomas are estrogen- and progesterone-sensitive tumors .Consequently, they develop during the reproductive years. After menopause, leiomyomas generally shrink, and new tumor development is infrequent. Leiomyomas themselves create a


HEEL PAIN- PLANTAR FASCITIS This is a common cause of pain in the heel. It occurs as a result of inflammation of the plantar aponeurosis at its attachment on the tuberosity of the calcaneum. Symptoms Stabbing pain in the bottom of your foot near the heel. The pain is usually the worst with the first


PREMENSTRUAL SYNDROME Frequently, women of reproductive age experience symptoms during the late luteal phase of their menstrual cycle, and collectively these complaints are termed premenstrual syndrome (PMS) or premenstrual tension (PMT). Nearly 300 different symptoms have been reported and typically include both psychiatric and physical complaints. SYMPTOMS Symptoms must begin at least 5 days before


Endometriosis Endometriosis is a common benign gynecologic disorder defined as the presence of endometrial glands and stroma outside of the normal location. Risk factors Never giving birth Early menarche Late menopause Heavy menstrual periods that last longer than seven days Having higher levels of estrogen in your body or a greater lifetime exposure to estrogen


Influenza(FLU) The term influenza represents both a clinically defined respiratory illness accompanied by systemic symptoms of fever, malaise, and myalgia and the name of the orthomyxoviruses that cause this syndrome. Three influenza viruses occur in humans: A, B, and C. These have a lipid envelope and prominent spikes that are formed by the two surface

Acute supraspinatus tendinitis

Acute supraspinatus tendinitis Causes 1.Age-As people get older, their tendons become less flexible — which makes them easier to injure. 2.Occupation Repetitive motions Awkward positions Frequent overhead reaching Vibration Forceful exertion Working on computer Heavy manual labor job 3.Sports You may be more likely to develop tendinitis if you participate in certain sports that involve


SHOULDER PAIN ROTATOR CUFF TENDONITIS The rotator cuff is a group of muscles that attach via tendons to the head of the upper arm bone (the humerus). The function of the cuff is to center the head of the humerus in the socket and move the arm. These tendons are in a constant state of


ACUTE PANCREATITIS BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF PANCREATIC EXOCRINE SECRETION The pancreas secretes 1500–3000 mL of isosmotic alkaline (pH >8) fluid per day containing about 20 enzymes. The pancreatic secretions provide the enzymes and bicarbonate needed to affect the major digestive activity of the gastrointestinal tract and provide an optimal pH for the function of these


ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS (Marie strumpelldisease) Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic disease characterised by a progressive inflammatory stiffening of the joints, with a predilection for the joints of the axial skeleton, especially the sacroiliac joints. This is a disease of young adults, more common in males Pathology Sacro-iliac joints are usually the first to get involved; followed


STOMACH CANCER The disease remains the third most frequent cause of worldwide cancer related death. CAUSES Alcohol Smoking Tobacco GERD A diet low in fruits and vegetables Family history of stomach cancer Germline mutation in the E-cadherin gene (CDH1) Mutation of TP53 gene Ingestion of high concentrations of nitrates found in dried,smoked, and salted foods-The

GOLFER’S ELBOW (Medial epicondylitis)

GOLFER’S ELBOW (Medial epicondylitis) This is a condition where the inflammation is at the origin of the flexor tendons at the medial epicondyle of the humerus. Causes The damage is typically related to excess or repeated stress — especially forceful wrist and finger motions. Improper lifting, throwing or hitting, as well as too little warm


COLORECTAL CANCER Cancer of the large bowel is second only to lung cancer as a cause of cancer death. Colon cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the large intestine (colon). The colon is the final part of the digestive tract. CAUSES Family history of colon cancer Low-fiber, high-fat diet.Colon cancer and rectal


TENNIS ELBOW (LATERAL EPICONDYLITIS) This is a condition characterised by pain and tenderness at the lateral epicondyle of the humerus due to non-specific inflammation at the origin of the extensor muscles of the forearm. CAUSES Although, it is sometimes seen in tennis players, other activities such as using Plumbing tools, Painting, Driving screws, Cutting up


CORNS Corns are circumscribed, horny, conical thickenings with the base on the surface and the apex pointing inward and pressing on subjacent structures. TWO VARIETIES: Hard corns, which occur on the dorsa of the toes or on the soles Soft corns, which occur between the toes and are softened by the macerating action of sweat


VERRUCA (WARTS) Warts are caused by human papilloma virus, of which there are more than 100 types. They are transmitted by close contact and auto-inoculation. CAUSES Common warts are caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). The virus is quite common and has more than 100 types, but only a few cause warts on your hands.


ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE(HEART ATTACK) Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is a condition in which there is an inadequate supply of blood and oxygen to a portion of the myocardium; it typically occurs when there is an imbalance between myocardial oxygen supply and demand. Classification 1.Coronary Arterial Syndrome(CAD)-Stable Angina 2.Acute Coronary Syndrome Non-ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (partial


IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME (IBS) Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort and altered bowel habits in the absence of detectable structural abnormalities. IBS symptoms tend to come and go over time and often overlap with other functional disorders such as fibromyalgia, headache, backache, and genitourinary symptoms. CAUSES


FAILURE TO THRIVE Failure to thrive (FTT) is a descriptive term given to infants and young children with malnourishment resulting in inadequate growth. FTT that is symmetric (proportional weight, height/length, and head circumference) suggests long-standing malnutrition, chromosomal abnormalities, congenital infection, or teratogenic exposures. CAUSES Inadequate nutritional intake Poverty Emotional deprivation Rumination Child maltreatment Maternal depression


TONSILLITIS The tonsils are the immune system’s first line of defense against bacteria and viruses that enter your mouth. This function may make the tonsils particularly vulnerable to infection and inflammation. Tonsillitis is inflammation of the tonsils, two oval-shaped pads of tissue at the back of the throat. Tonsillitis most commonly affects children between preschool


LUMBAR SPONDYLOSIS(Low Back Pain) Lumbar spondylosis is a normal part of aging.It is the Osteoarthritis of the Lumbar spine may produce low back pain. CAUSES Dehydrated disks.Disks act like cushions between the vertebrae of your spine. By the age of 40, most people’s spinal disks begin drying out and shrinking, which allows more bone-on-bone contact


BENIGN PAROXYSMAL POSITIONAL VERTIGO Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is the most common cause (20–40%) of peripheral vertigo. Age of onset  11–84 years; mean age of onset fourth to fifth decades. Incidence increases with age.Slightly increased incidence in females. CAUSES Most common are closed head injury and vestibular neuronitis (vertigo lasting days) Infections „ Old age


RHINOSINUSITIS (COMMON COLD) Infection and inflammation of nose and sinus CAUSES Approximately 20–30% cases of acute rhinosinusitis are viral. Common viruses are: rhinovirus (most common in adults) ,Corona virus,Parainfluenza viruses, Adenovirus, picorna virus ,Coxsackie ,ECHO viruses ,Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) ,Influenza virus Cold and Hot weather and when the weather changes Swimming and diving: Infected


OTITIS MEDIA (EAR INFECTION) Otitis media (OM) refers to inflammation of middle ear cleft. OM is not only the most common  in children but also a leading cause of hearing loss in children. CAUSES OF Otitis media Bottle feeding (breast feeding is protective)- Feeding bottle: In the supine position, bottle feeding may lead milk to

Rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by a symmetric polyarthritis, the most common form of chronic inflammatory arthritis. Since persistently active RA often results in articular cartilage and bone destruction and functional disability. CLINICAL FEATURES Polyarthritis of peripheral joints with pain, tenderness, and swelling of affected joints Stiffness lasting more


ANXIETY DISORDER Anxiety is the commonest psychiatric symptom in clinical practice and anxiety disorders are one of the commonest psychiatric disorders in general population. Anxiety is a ‘normal’ phenomenon, which is characterised by a state of apprehension or unease arising out of anticipation of danger. SYMPTOMS Tremors Restlessness Muscle twitches Fearful facial expression Palpitations; Tachycardia


MIGRAINE HEADACHE Migraine, the second most common cause of headache. A migraine can cause severe throbbing pain or a pulsing sensation, usually on one side of the head. It’s often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and extreme sensitivity to light and sound. Migraine attacks can last for hours to days, and the pain can be so


ALLERGIC SINUSITIS Sinusitis causes the spaces inside your nose (sinuses) to become inflamed and swollen. This interferes with drainage and causes mucus to build up CAUSES ,RISK FACTORS AND TRIGGERS   DIET-diets low in antioxidants such as vitamin C and vitamin A, magnesium, selenium, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fats (fish oil), Vitamin D deficiency DIET -high


MALARIA Malaria, the most important protozoa disease in humans, is caused by the genus Plasmodium. Four species are pathogenic, P. vivax, P. falciparum, P. malariae and P. ovale, of which the first two occur in India. Mosquitoes usually breed in edges of streams, water tanks, pits, cisterns and overhead tanks fountains burrowed pits, pools, ponds,

Seizures and Epilepsy

Seizures and Epilepsy A seizure is a transient occurrence of signs or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain. Epilepsy describes a condition in which a person has a risk of recurrent seizures due to a chronic, underlying process. CLASSIFICATION OF SEIZURES Focal seizures a.Focal seizures without loss of consciousness.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD)

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) Chronic kidney disease (CKD) encompasses a spectrum of pathophysiologic processes associated with abnormal kidney function and a progressive decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Causes Type 1 or type 2 diabetes High blood pressure Glomerulonephritis Interstitial nephritis Polycystic kidney disease Prolonged obstruction of the urinary tract, from conditions such as enlarged


GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE(GERD) Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) occurs when stomach acid frequently flows back into the tube connecting your mouth and stomach (esophagus). This backwash (acid reflux) can irritate the lining of your esophagus. CAUSES Transient Lower Esophagus Splinter (LES) relaxations -a vagovagal reflex in which LES relaxation is elicited by gastric distention LES hypotension


CERVICAL SPONDYLOSIS Cervical spondylosis is a normal part of aging.It is the Osteoarthritis of the cervical spine may produce neck pain. CAUSES Dehydrated disks.Disks act like cushions between the vertebrae of your spine. By the age of 40, most people’s spinal disks begin drying out and shrinking, which allows more bone-on-bone contact between the vertebrae.


SCHIZOPHRENIA Schizophrenia is one of the most common, devastating, neuropsychiatric illnesses present in the human population. CAUSES Complex dopamine dysregulation occurs, with hyperdopaminergic activity Withdrawal from friends and family A drop in performance at school Trouble sleeping Irritability or depressed mood Lack of motivation Family history of schizophrenia Alcohol Drug addiction Stress Depression Use of


LUNG CANCER Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death among men and women. CAUSES Cigarette smoking Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) or second-hand smoke Alcohol Tobacco chewing Occupational exposures to asbestos, arsenic, bischloromethyl ether, chromium, mustard gas, nickel and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Ionizing radiation Prolonged exposure to low-level radon Low fruit and vegetable


PUBERTY &PRECOCIOUS PUBERTY PUBERTY Puberty is the period of transition from childhood to adult sexual maturation. It is the period of gradual development of secondary sexual characters. There are profound biological, morphological, and psychological changes that lead to full sexual maturity and eventually fertility The most common order is beginning of the growth spurt →


PARKINSON’S DISEASE Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common age-related neurodegenerative disease. CAUSES Soil in farming activities due use of chemical pesticides, chemical fertilizer Exposure to chemical pesticides that may induce mutation in genes INSECTICIDE,PESTICIDE,RODENTICIDE,WEEDICIDE 1.ORGANOPHOSPHORUS  POISON(OP POISON) Malathoin, Tetron, Parathion,Chlorthoin,Diazion(Tik 20) 2.ORGANO CHLORINES DDT,Aldrin,Endrin,Endosulfan,Benzene Hexa Chloride 3.PARAQUAT(WEEDOL) 4.FLOURIDES(SODIUM FLOURIDES) 5.ZINC PHOSPHIDE 6.ALUMINUM PHOSPHIDE


DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY Muscular dystrophies are a group of genetic muscle diseases characterized by progressive myofiber degeneration and the gradual replacement of muscle by fibrotic tissue. Duchenne muscular dystrophy is the most common muscular dystrophy and one of the most common genetic disorders of childhood. CAUSES Duchenne muscular dystrophy is an X-linked disorder (Xp21) that

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)

SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease in which organs and cells undergo damage initially mediated by tissue-binding autoantibodies and immune complexes. CAUSES Tobacco smoking Drinking alcohol Exposure to crystalline silica e.g., inhalation of soap powder dust Soil in farming activities due use of pesticides, artificial fertilizer Genetic susceptibility Autoimmunity-inducing activation


FUNCTIONAL CONSTIPATION AND SOILING Constipation is decreased frequency of bowel movements, usually associated with a hard stool consistency. The occurrence of pain at defecation frequently accompanies constipation. Functional constipation implies that there is no identifiable causative organic condition. Encopresis Encopresis is the regular, voluntary, or involuntary passage of feces into a place other than the


BREAST FEEDING Breast milk is an ideal food for neonates. It is the best gift that a mother can give to her baby. Mothers milk as the sole source of nutrition for the first 6 months of life, with continued intake for the first year, and as long as desired thereafter. Breast feeding has short-


CRYING and COLIC in INFANT NORMAL DEVELOPMENT Infant crying can be a sign of pain, distress, hunger, or fatigue and is interpreted by caregivers according to the context of the crying. The cry just after birth heralds the infant’s health and vigor. Crying is best understood by the characteristics of timing, duration, frequency, intensity, and


TEMPER TANTRUMS Temper tantrums include behaviors that occur when the child responds to physical or emotional challenges by drawing attention to himself and can include Yelling, Biting, Crying, Kicking, Pushing, Throwing Objects,  Head Banging, Hitting, Holding the Breath, Pinching,  Tensing Muscles Tantrums typically begin at 18-36 months of age. Inability to assert autonomy or perform


DENGUE FEVER Dengue Infections Dengue fever is an acute illness characterized by fever, myalgia, arthralgia and rash. Severe dengue infection is characterized by abnormalities in hemostasis and by marked leakage of plasma from the capillaries; the latter may lead to shock (dengue shock syndrome). Virus. Dengue fever is caused by infection due to any of


NORMAL DEVELOPMENTAL MILESTONES IN CHILDREN BONDING AND ATTACHMENT IN INFANCY The terms bonding and attachment describe the affective relationships between parents and infants. Bonding occurs shortly after birth and reflects the feelings of the parents toward the newborn (unidirectional). Attachment involves reciprocal feelings between parent and infant and develops gradually over the first year. Stranger


ANAL FISSURE An anal fissure is a small tear in the mucosa that lines the anus. Anal fissures occur at all ages but are more common in the third through the fifth decades. A fissure is the most common cause of rectal bleeding in infancy. The prevalence is equal in males and females. It is


ACNE VULGARIS(PIMPLES) Acne is most common in the teenage years, individual differences relating to severity and the extent of scarring. Peak severity is in the late teenage years but acne may persist into the third decade and beyond, particularly in females. CAUSES Increased sebum excretion is necessary for the development of acne, it is not


DIABETES MELLITUS India is the capital of DIABETES MELLITUS due to change of life style and western diet. Diabetes Mellitus refers to hyperglycemia(high blood sugar) include reduced insulin secretion, decreased glucose utilization, and increased glucose production. Normal glucose level : Fasting blood sugar=80-110 mg/dL Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), characterized by elevations in postprandial glucose(< 126


CHICKENPOX Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes two distinct clinical syndromes: varicella (chickenpox) and herpes zoster (shingles). Chickenpox is highly contagious, with an attack rate of at least 90% among susceptible (seronegative) individuals. Persons of both sexes and all races are infected equally. The virus is endemic in the population at large; however, it becomes epidemic among


  ALOPECIA (HAIR FALL) The two major forms of alopecia are scarring and nonscarring. Scarring alopecia is associated with fibrosis, inflammation, and loss of hair follicles. In nonscarring alopecia, the hair shafts are absent or miniaturized, but the hair follicles are preserved. Alopecia totalis is complete loss of scalp hair. Alopecia universalis is complete loss


HEMORRHOIDAL DISEASE Pathophysiology Hemorrhoidal cushions are a normal part of the anal canal. The vascular structures contained within this tissue aid in continence by preventing damage to the sphincter muscle. Three main hemorrhoidal complexes traverse the anal canal— the left lateral, the right anterior, and the right posterior. Engorgement and straining lead to prolapse of


ASTHMA Asthmatics harbor a special type of inflammation in the airways that makes them more responsive to a wide range of triggers, leading to excessive narrowing with consequent reduced airflow and symptomatic wheezing and dyspnea. CAUSES ,RISK FACTORS AND TRIGGERS DIET-diets low in antioxidants such as vitamin C and vitamin A, magnesium, selenium, and omega-3


GALLSTONES Gallstones are hardened deposits of digestive fluid that can form in your gallbladder. Your gallbladder is a small, pear-shaped organ on the right side of your abdomen, just beneath your liver. The gallbladder holds a digestive fluid called bile that’s released into your small intestine. Types of gallstones 1.Cholesterol gallstones. Cholesterol gallstones usually contain


MUMPS Mumps is an acute systemic communicable viral infection whose most distinctive feature is swelling of one or both saliva-producing (salivary) glands. It is caused by mumps virus, a negative-strand nonsegmented RNA paramyxovirus. CAUSES Mumps is caused by a virus that spreads easily from person to person through infected saliva. If you’re not immune, you


HYPOTHYROIDISM The thyroid gland produces two related hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) is a condition in which your thyroid gland doesn’t produce enough of certain crucial hormones. Types Primary Hypothyroidism Deficient thyroid hormone secretion can be due to thyroid failure. Secondary Hypothyroidism Deficient thyroid hormone secretion can be due to pituitary


GOUT  Gout  is  a  metabolic  disease  that  most  often  affects  middle-aged  to  elderly  men  and  postmenopausal  women.  It  results  from  an  increased  body  pool  of  urate  with  hyperuricemia. Hyperuricemia may  arise in a wide range of settings that cause overproduction or reduced excretion of uric acid or a combination of the two. Causes Gout  occurs 


PEPTIC ULCER A peptic ulcer is defined as disruption of the mucosal integrity of the stomach and/or duodenum leading to a local defect or excavation due to active inflammation. Peptic ulcers include: 1.Gastric ulcers that occur on the inside of the stomach 2.Duodenal ulcers that occur on the inside of the upper portion of your


PSORIASIS A chronic, recurrent disorder. Classic lesion is a well-marginated, erythematous plaque with silvery-white surface scale. Distribution includes extensor surfaces (i.e., knees, elbows, and buttocks); may also involve palms and scalp (particularly anterior scalp margin). Triggers Infections, such as strep throat or skin infections Injury to the skin, such as a cut or scrape, a

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome(PCOS)

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrinopathy typified by oligo ovulation or anovulation, signs of androgen excess, and multiple small ovarian cysts. Causes Use of certain pain killer- Ibuprofen, diclofenac Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)- Paracetamol Smoking Alcohol Stress Use of antibiotic Lack of physical activity Insecticide,Pesticide,Rodenticide,Weedicide Eating high carbohydrate food Lack


Menopause Menopause is defined as the time of cessation of ovarian function resulting in permanent amenorrhoea. It takes  12 months of amenorrhoea to confirm that menopause. Cessation before age 40, termed premature ovarian failure, is associated with an elevated  follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) Climacteric is the phase of waning ovarian activity, and may begin 2–3 years


Measles Measles is a highly contagious disease caused by Measles Virus that replicates in the nose and throat of an infected child or adult. Then, when someone with measles coughs, sneezes or talks, infected droplets spray into the air, where other people can inhale them. The infected droplets may also land on a surface, where

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection in any part of your urinary system — your kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra. Most infections involve the lower urinary tract — the bladder and the urethra. UTI encompasses a variety of clinical entities Cystitis (symptomatic disease of the bladder) Pyelonephritis (symptomatic disease

Typhoid Fever

Typhoid Fever  Causative agent: Salmonella typhi Incubation Period: 10-14 days Mode of transmission: Faeco-oral route, urine-oral route . The bacteria that cause typhoid fever spread through contaminated food or water and through direct contact with someone who is infected. Clinical features:  High Fever(101-104 f)  Headache  Abdominal Pain Weakness and Fatigue Muscle Aches Sweating Dry Cough

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity disorder

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Causes Genetic Blood relatives, such as a parent or sibling, with ADHD or another mental health disorder Neural- Dopamine and Noradrenaline are increased Environmental -prenatal exposure to a variety of substances including nicotine, alcohol, prescription medications, and illicit substances. Environmental exposure to lead, organophosphate pesticides Trauma Infection Minimal brain damage Premature birth


ALCOHOL USE DISORDERS Alcohol dependence was previously called as alcoholism. Alcohol dependence is more common in males, and has an onset in late second or early third decade. If the onset occurs late in life, especially after 40 years of age, an underlying mood disorder should be looked for.If the  alcoholic continues to drink, life

Nephrolithiasis (Kidney Stone Disease)

Nephrolithiasis (Kidney Stone Disease) Types of kidney stones Calcium Oxalate Stones are most common Calcium Phosphate Uric Acid Struvite Cystine  ASSOCIATED MEDICAL CONDITIONS Several conditions predispose to stone formation, including Gastrointestinal malabsorption (e.g., crohn’s disease, gastric bypass surgery) Primary hyperparathyroidism Obesity Type 2 diabetes mellitus Distal renal tubular acidosis Hypertension Gout cardiovascular disease Cholelithiasis Reduced

Sexual Disorders

Sexual Disorders Sexual dysfunction is a significant disturbance in the sexual response cycle, which is not due to an underlying organic cause. To understand sexual dysfunction, a brief outline of normal human sexual response cycle,a normal human  sexual response cycle can be divided into 5 phases 1.Appetitive Phase: The phase before the actual sexual response

Sleep Disorder

Sleep Disorder Sleep normal physiology  Nearly one third of human life is spent in sleep.Sleep which is broadly divided into two broadly different phases 1.REM-sleep (rapid eye movement sleep) 2.NREM-sleep (non-REM sleep) In an 8 hour sleep, usually 6-6½ hours are spent in the NREM-sleep while 1½-2 hours are in the REM-sleep. The REM-sleep occurs


Depression Sadness of mood is usually associated with pessimism, which can result in three common types of depressive ideas. Hopelessness (there is no hope in the future). Helplessness (no help is possible now). Worthlessness (feeling of inadequacy and inferiority).The ideas of worthlessness can lead to self reproach and guilt-feelings. Difficulty In Thinking. Difficulty In Concentration. Indecisiveness.


AUTISM This syndrome is more common (3-4 times) in males. This syndrome has variously been described as  autistic disorder, pervasive developmental disorder, childhood autism. Typically, the onset occurs before the age of 2½ years CLINICAL FEATURES Absent social smile. Lack of eye-to-eye-contact. Lack of awareness of others’ existence or feelings; treats people as furniture Lack


Infertility Infertility implies apparent failure of a couple to conceive, while sterility indicates absolute inability to conceive, for one or more reasons. If a couple fails to achieve pregnancy after 1 year of ‘unprotected’ and regular intercourse, it is an indication to investigate the couple. 80% of normal couples achieve conception within a year. 50%


Hypertension &  Prevention Blood pressure is the force of blood against the artery walls. It is expressed as systolic and diastolic pressures. Both numbers must be maintained within normal values. Normal reading=120/80mmhg(+or-10) Chronic elevation in bp (systolic ≥140 mmHg or diastolic ≥90 mmHg is called Hypertension  Causes of hypertension Stress Depression Anxiety disorder Mood disorder


Enuresis is repetitive voiding of urine, either during the day or night, at inappropriate places. This state of affairs is normal in infancy. Most children achieve bladder control by the age of three years. By the age of 5 years, there are still about 7% of children who wet their bed. Clinically , enuresis is


CORONAVIRUS Coronaviruses are pleomorphic, single-stranded RNA viruses. Human coronaviruses were known to cause disease: 229E (HCoV-229E) and OC43 (HCoV-OC43).The virus is now known as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The disease it causes is called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). COVID-19  symptoms are usually mild and begin gradually. Some people become infected but

Acute renal failure

Acute renal failure (ARF) ARF is defined as an abrupt or rapid decline in the ability of the kidneys to remove waste and concentrate urine without  losing electrolytes of the body.  This condition is usually marked with rapid reduction in urine output, rise in serum creatinine concentration and rise in blood urea nitrogen [BUN] concentration. Risk