Cancer of the large bowel is second only to lung cancer as a cause of cancer death. Colon cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the large intestine (colon). The colon is the final part of the digestive tract.
- Family history of colon cancer
- Low-fiber, high-fat diet.Colon cancer and rectal cancer may be associated with a typical Western diet, which is low in fiber and high in fat and calories.
- High spicy food
- Deep fried meat
- A sedentary lifestyle.People who are inactive are more likely to develop colon cancer. Getting regular physical activity may reduce your risk of colon cancer.
- People with diabetes or insulin resistance have an increased risk of colon cancer.
- People who are obese have an increased risk of colon cancer
- People who smoke may have an increased risk of colon cancer.
- Heavy use of alcohol increases your risk of colon cancer.
- Tobacco use
- Radiation therapy for cancer.Radiation therapy directed at the abdomen to treat previous cancers increases the risk of colon cancer.
- Ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease
- Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP)
- Lynch syndrome
- Juvenile polyp
- Adenomatous polyp
Many people with colon cancer experience no symptoms in the early stages of the disease.
- A persistent change in your bowel habits, including diarrhea or constipation or a change in the consistency of your stool
- Rectal bleeding or blood in your stool
- Persistent abdominal discomfort, such as cramps, gas or pain
- A feeling that your bowel doesn’t empty completely
- Weakness or fatigue
- Unexplained weight loss
1.Chromosomal instability. This involves mutations or deletions of portions of chromosomes with loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and inactivation of specific tumour suppressor genes,hypomethylation of DNA
- Point mutations in the K-ras protooncogene
- Loss of DNA (allelic loss) at the site of a tumor-suppressor gene (the adenomatous polyposis coli [APC] gene) on the long arm of chromosome 5
- Allelic loss at the site of a tumor-suppressor gene located on chromosome 18q (the deleted in colorectal cancer [DCC] gene)
- Allelic loss at chromosome 17p, associated with mutations in the p53 tumor- suppressor gene
2.Microsatellite instability. This involves germline mutations in one of six genes encoding enzymes involved in repairing errors that occur normally during DNA replication (DNA mismatch repair)
- Dietary fibre- Effects vary with fibre type; shortened transit time, binding of bile acids and effects on bacterial flora proposed
- Fruit and Green vegetables contain anticarcinogens, such as glucosinolates and flavonoids
- Calcium Binds and precipitates faecal bile acids
- Folic acid Reverses DNA hypomethylation
- Omega-3 fatty acids May be of modest benefit
- Avoid alcohol
- Avoid tobacco
- Avoid chemical pesticides, chemical fertilizer for farming
- Avoid herbicides
- Avoid weedicides
- Avoid rodenticide
- Regular excersise
- Avoid smoking
- Eating foods high in fiber
- Drinking an adequate amount of fluids
Blood –CBC,CEA,UREA CREATININE,FBS,HBA1C