Cancer of the large bowel is second only to lung cancer as a cause of cancer death. Colon cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the large intestine (colon). The colon is the final part of the digestive tract.


  • Family history of colon cancer
  • Low-fiber, high-fat diet.Colon cancer and rectal cancer may be associated with a typical Western diet, which is low in fiber and high in fat and calories.
  • High spicy food
  • Deep fried meat
  • A sedentary lifestyle.People who are inactive are more likely to develop colon cancer. Getting regular physical activity may reduce your risk of colon cancer.
  • People with diabetes or insulin resistance have an increased risk of colon cancer.
  • People who are obese have an increased risk of colon cancer
  • People who smoke may have an increased risk of colon cancer.
  • Heavy use of alcohol increases your risk of colon cancer.
  • Tobacco use
  • Cholecystectomy
  • Radiation therapy for cancer.Radiation therapy directed at the abdomen to treat previous cancers increases the risk of colon cancer.
  • Ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease
  • Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP)
  • Lynch syndrome
  • Juvenile polyp
  • Adenomatous polyp


Many people with colon cancer experience no symptoms in the early stages of the disease.

  • A persistent change in your bowel habits, including diarrhea or constipation or a change in the consistency of your stool
  • Rectal bleeding or blood in your stool
  • Persistent abdominal discomfort, such as cramps, gas or pain
  • A feeling that your bowel doesn’t empty completely
  • Weakness or fatigue
  • Unexplained weight loss


1.Chromosomal instability. This involves mutations or deletions of portions of chromosomes with loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and inactivation of specific tumour suppressor genes,hypomethylation of DNA

  1. Point mutations in the K-ras protooncogene
  2. Loss of DNA (allelic loss) at the site of a tumor-suppressor gene (the adenomatous polyposis coli [APC] gene) on the long arm of chromosome 5
  3. Allelic loss at the site of a tumor-suppressor gene located on chromosome 18q (the deleted in colorectal cancer [DCC] gene)
  4. Allelic loss at chromosome 17p, associated with mutations in the p53 tumor- suppressor gene


2.Microsatellite instability. This involves germline mutations in one of six genes encoding enzymes involved in repairing errors that occur normally during DNA replication (DNA mismatch repair)


  • Dietary fibre- Effects vary with fibre type; shortened transit time, binding of bile acids and effects on bacterial flora proposed
  • Fruit and Green vegetables contain anticarcinogens, such as glucosinolates and flavonoids
  • Calcium Binds and precipitates faecal bile acids
  • Folic acid Reverses DNA hypomethylation
  • Omega-3 fatty acids May be of modest benefit
  • Avoid alcohol
  • Avoid tobacco
  • Avoid chemical pesticides, chemical fertilizer for farming
  • Avoid herbicides
  • Avoid weedicides
  • Avoid rodenticide
  • Regular excersise
  • Avoid smoking
  • Eating foods high in fiber
  • Drinking an adequate amount of fluids








Leave a Comment