An anal fissure is a small tear in the mucosa that lines the anus.
Anal fissures occur at all ages but are more common in the third through the fifth decades.
A fissure is the most common cause of rectal bleeding in infancy. The prevalence is equal in males and females.
It is associated with constipation, diarrhea, infectious etiologies, perianal trauma, and Crohn’s disease.
Trauma to the anal canal occurs following defecation. This injury occurs in the anterior or, more commonly, the posterior anal canal. Irritation caused by the trauma to the anal canal results in an increased resting pressure of the internal sphincter. Increased anal sphincter tone results in a relative ischemia in the region of the fissure and leads to poor healing of the anal injury.
- Passing large or hard stools
- Constipation and straining during bowel movements
- Chronic diarrhea
- Anal intercourse
- Crohn’s disease or another inflammatory bowel disease
- Anal cancer
- Pain, which is strongly associated with defecation and is relentless. Pain after bowel movements that can last up to several hours
- Bright red bleeding
- Oedematous skin tag, or ‘sentinel pile
- Itching around anus
- Fear to pass stool
- Eat high-fiber foods
- Drink plenty of fluids (3-4 liters of water)
- Exercise regularly to keep from having to strain during bowel movements.
- Eat fruits
- Avoid spicy food
- Avoid junk food, oily food
- Avoid straining during bowel movements. Straining creates pressure, which can open a healing tear or cause a new tear.
- If your infant has an anal fissure, be sure to change diapers frequently, wash the area gently