Rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by a symmetric polyarthritis, the most common form of chronic inflammatory arthritis. Since persistently active RA often results in articular cartilage and bone destruction and functional disability.


  • Polyarthritis of peripheral joints with pain, tenderness, and swelling of affected joints
  • Stiffness lasting more than 1 h that eases with physical activity is common
  • The earliest involved joints are typically the small joints of the hands and feet
  • Flexor tendon tenosynovitis is a frequent hallmark of ra and leads to decreased range of motion, reduced grip strength, and “trigger” fingers
  • Hyperextension of the pip joint with flexion of the dip joint (“swan-neck deformity”)
  • Flexion of the pip joint with hyperextension of the dip joint (“boutonnière deformity”)
  • Subluxation of the distal ulna, resulting in a “piano-key movement” of the ulnar styloid
  • Chronic inflammation of the ankle and midtarsal regions usually comes later and may lead to pes planovalgus (“flat feet”).
  • Weight loss
  • Fever
  • Fatigue
  • Malaise
  • Depression
  • Loss of appetite


  • Women
  • Family history
  • Smoking
  • Alcohol
  • Environmental exposures-asbestos or silica
  • Obesity
  • Insecticide,pesticide,rodenticide,weedicide use in farming
  • Chemical fertilizer for farming
  • Depression
  • Stress


  • Subcutaneous nodules
  • Sjögren’s syndrome-keratoconjunctivitis sicca (dry eyes)or xerostomia(dry mouth)
  • Pleuritic chest pain and dyspnea
  • Anemia
  • Rheumatoid vasculitis
  • Lymphoma
  • Coronary artery disease  and carotid atherosclerosis
  • Osteoporosis
  • Men and postmenopausal women with RA have lower mean serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)


The pathologic hallmarks of RA are synovial inflammation and proliferation, focal bone erosions, and thinning of articular cartilage. Chronic inflammation leads to synovial lining hyperplasia and the formation of pannus.


  • Avoid chemical pesticides, chemical fertilizer for farming
  • Avoid herbicides
  • Avoid weedicides
  • Avoid rodenticide
  • Eat organic fruits, vegetable
  • Regular excersise
  • Avoid smoking
  • Eating foods high in fiber
  • Drinking an adequate amount of fluids







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