Infection and inflammation of nose and sinus


  • Approximately 20–30% cases of acute rhinosinusitis are viral.
  • Common viruses are: rhinovirus (most common in adults) ,Corona virus,Parainfluenza viruses, Adenovirus, picorna virus ,Coxsackie ,ECHO viruses ,Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) ,Influenza virus
  • Cold and Hot weather and when the weather changes
  • Swimming and diving: Infected water enters the sinuses through the ostia.
  • High content of chlorine gas in swimming pools causes chemical inflammation
  • Barotraumas
  • Dental infections and extraction of upper molars and premolars
  • Peri apical dental abscess may burst into the sinus
  • DIET-diets low in antioxidants such as vitamin C and vitamin A, magnesium, selenium, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fats (fish oil), Vitamin D deficiency
  • DIET -high in sodium and omega-6 polyunsaturates
  • AIR POLLUTION– sulfur dioxide, ozone, and diesel particulate and nitrogen dioxide ,Car Exhaust,
  • ALLERGENS– House Dust Mites, centrally heated poorly ventilated homes with fitted carpets, Domestic pets, particularly Cats Fur, Dog Fur, Pigeon Droppings, Cockroaches, Rabbit, Grass Pollen, Ragweed, Tree Pollen, and Fungal Spores, Dust Mite, mould growth following water damage to a home.
  • ODOURS-Body deodorant, Perfumes, Nail Polish,Talcum Powder,Beaching Powder, Paint sprayers, chemical fumes, gases , Hairdressing ,Hair Colouring ,Toilet Cleaners commonly develop asthma owing to exposure to aerosols
  • DRUGS-paracetamol, aspirin, beta blockers anti hypertensive drug,anti-biotic
  • FOOD -Food-Coloring Agent, Cold food,Ice cream, Sulfites and preservatives added to some types of foods and beverages, dried fruit, processed potatoes Finger chips, beer and wine
  • Obesity
  • Lower maternal age
  • Cigarette smoke exposure
  • Cigarette smoking
  • Alcohol
  • Tobacco chewing
  • Betel nuts
  • Oral Contraceptive Pill
  • Exercise -sports such as cross-country running in cold weather, overland skiing, and ice hockey


  • Sore throat, which lasts for 1 or 2 days and then followed by cough and nasal discharge
  • In beginning there may be burning sensation at the back of nose, nasal stuffiness, rhinorrhea and sneezing
  • Fever and chill
  • Nasal watery discharge is profuse and may become mucopurulent
  • Cough may remain throughout the day and may be more at night
  • Nose block
  • Loss of smell
  • Throat pain
  • Post nasal discharge
  • Facial pain
  • Gum pain
  • Headache usually comes up on waking, gradually increases and reaches its peak at about mid-day and then starts subsiding (office headache)
  • Ethmoidal pain, which may be aggravated by movements of the eyeball, is localized over the bridge of the nose, medial and deep to the eye.
  • Malaise
  • Halitosis


  1. Acute inflammation of mucosa causes hyperemia, exudation of fluid, outpouring of polymorphonuclear cells and increased activity of serous and mucous glands.
  2. The exudate, which is serous in beginning, becomes mucopurulent and causes destruction of mucosal lining


  • Quit smoking
  • Avoid alchol,beet nut
  • Take plenty of deit rich in vitamin A,C,D
  • Reduce salt intake
  • Avoid playing with pet animals like cat ,dog
  • Avoid Body deodorant, Perfumes, Nail Polish,Talcum Powder
  • Avoid Sulfites and preservatives added to some types of foods
  • Clean your room with wet mop
  • Clean your air conditioner filter regularly
  • Maintain ideal body weight
  • Reduce our air air pollution
  • Breast feed your children minimum 6 months.Avoid formulated artificial feed.
  • Avoid chemical pesticides, chemical fertilizer for farming
  • Hand washing
  • Use hand kerchief while sneezing




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