Coronaviruses are pleomorphic, single-stranded RNA viruses. Human coronaviruses were known to cause disease: 229E (HCoV-229E) and OC43 (HCoV-OC43).The virus is now known as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The disease it causes is called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

COVID-19  symptoms are usually mild and begin gradually. Some people become infected but don’t develop any symptoms and don’t feel unwell. Most people (about 95%) recover from the disease .

Mode of spread -Human to human by aerosol ,droplet infection by sneezing.It may also be spread if a person touches a surface with the virus on it and then touches his or her mouth, nose or eyes.

Clinical Manifestations

  1. Fever ,
  2. Cough,
  3. Sneezing
  4. Rhinorrhea,
  5. Sore throat,
  6. Malaise,
  7. Headache,
  8. Myalgia,
  9. Dyspnea
  10. Loss of smell
  11. Loss of taste
  12. Fear of impending doom
  13. Fear of death
  14. Diarrhea
  15. Pain abdomen

Incubation period :3-14 days.

Super spreader are hyper infectious. They can spread to more than 10 to 40 persons.

SARS, COVID-19 has an incubation period of 2–7 days, after which patients develop fever, malaise, headache, myalgia, and then (1–2 days later) a nonproductive cough and dyspnea. – Respiratory function may worsen in the second week of illness and can progress to ARDS and multi organ dysfunction.


  • Wash your hands often with soap and water, or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer.
  • Cover your mouth and nose with your elbow or tissue when you cough or sneeze.
  • Avoid touching your eyes, nose and mouth if your hands aren’t clean.
  • Avoid close contact with anyone who is sick.
  • Avoid large events and mass gatherings.
  • Avoid sharing dishes, glasses, bedding and other household items if you’re sick.
  • Clean and disinfect surfaces you often touch on a daily basis.
  • Stay home from work, school and public areas if you’re sick, unless you’re going to get medical care. Avoid taking public transportation if you’re sick.
  • Maintain at least 1 metre (3 feet) distance between yourself and anyone who is coughing or sneezing
  • Refrain from smoking and other activities that weaken the lungs.

Risk factors

  • Recent travel from or residence in an area with ongoing spread of COVID-19
  • Close contact with someone who has COVID-19 — such as when a family member or health care worker takes care of an infected person
  • Chronic (long-term) lung disease
  • Chronic heart disease
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Chronic liver disease
  • Chronic neurological disease
  • Immunosuppression (whether caused by disease or treatment)
  • Heart failure
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Old age
  • Cancer
  • Impared cilia movement due to smoking.
  • Smokers are likely to be more vulnerable to COVID-19 as the act of smoking means that fingers (and possibly contaminated cigarettes) are in contact with lips which increases the possibility of transmission of virus from hand to mouth. Smokers may also already have lung disease or reduced lung capacity which would greatly increase risk of serious illness.
  • High blood pressure.

Complications :

Older people and people with many serious medical conditions are the most likely to experience lingering COVID-19 symptoms, but even young, otherwise healthy people can feel unwell for weeks to months after infection.

  • Fatigue
  • Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
  • Cough
  • Joint pain
  • Chest pain
  • Memory, concentration or sleep problems
  • Muscle pain or headache
  • Fast or pounding heartbeat
  • Loss of smell or taste
  • Depression or anxiety
  • Fever
  • Dizziness when you stand
  • Worsened symptoms after physical or mental activities
  • Insomnia
  • Imaging tests taken months after recovery from COVID-19 have shown lasting damage to the heart muscle, even in people who experienced only mild COVID-19 symptoms. This may increase the risk of heart failure or other heart complications in the future.
  • The type of pneumonia often associated with COVID-19 can cause long-standing damage to the tiny air sacs (alveoli) in the lungs. The resulting scar tissue can lead to long-term breathing problems.
  • Even in young people, COVID-19 can cause strokes, seizures and Guillain-Barre syndrome — a condition that causes temporary paralysis. COVID-19 may also increase the risk of developing Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease.

Laboratory diagnosis –

  • The coronavirus associated with SARS (SARS-CoV),COVID-19 can be detected by RT-PCR or viral culture from respiratory samples and serum early in illness and from urine and stool later on.
  • SARS ,COVID-19,is also associated with lymphopenia mostly CD4+ cells.


The inhaled virus SARS-CoV-2 likely binds to epithelial cells in the nasal cavity and starts replicating. ACE2 is expressed in multiple tissues throughout the body, including type II pneumocytes, myocardial cells, cholangiocytes, enterocytes, and oral mucosal epithelium. The SARS-CoV-2 infection enters the host cells through the S spike protein by binding to ACE2 .

The invasion of the virus to the lung cells, myocytes and endothelial cells of the vascular system results in inflammatory changes including oedema, degeneration and necrotic changes. These changes are mainly related to proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor α, granulocyte colony stimulating factor, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, macrophage inflammatory protein 1α, and increased expression of programmed cell death.

Infection with SARS-CoV-2 has been also shown to cause hypoxaemia. These changes lead to accumulation of oxygen free radicals, changes in intracellular pH, accumulation of lactic acid, electrolyte changes and further cellular damage.

The gastrointestinal manifestations of COVID-19 include diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. ACE2 has been found to be expressed in the epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract, suggesting virus entry through the ACE2 receptors and its replication causing inflammatory changes and the patient’s symptoms.


Homeopathy medicine


Homeopathic medicine induce IgG,IgM,IgA antibodies

Homeopathic medicine prevent adsorption of the virus to the cell receptor

Homeopathic medicine cause enhanced virus degradation

Homeopathic medicine prevent release of progeny virus from infected cell

Homeopathic medicine cause surface damage to enveloped virions and producing cytolysis of virus infected cells

Homeopathic medicine stimulate the macrophages to phagocytose virus

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