Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute, frequently severe, and fulminant polyradiculoneuropathy that is autoimmune in nature in which your body’s immune system attacks your nerves. 


  • GBS appears days or weeks after a respiratory or digestive tract infection.
  • COVID-19 virus
  • Swine influenza vaccine
  • Recent surgery
  • Vaccination
  • Influenza vaccinations
  • Childhood vaccinations
  •  Rabies vaccine
  • Most commonly, infection with campylobacter, a type of bacteria often found in undercooked poultry
  • Influenza virus
  • Cytomegalovirus
  • Epstein-Barr virus
  • Zika virus
  • Hepatitis A, B, C and E
  • HIV, the virus that causes AIDS
  • Mycoplasma pneumonia
  • Surgery
  • Trauma
  • Hodgkin’s lymphoma
  • COVID-19 Johnson & Johnson vaccine

Clinical Manifestations

  • Prickling, pins and needles sensations in your fingers, toes, ankles or wrists
  • Weakness in your legs that spreads to your upper body
  • Unsteady walking or inability to walk or climb stairs
  • Difficulty with facial movements, including speaking, chewing or swallowing
  • Double vision or inability to move eyes
  • Severe pain that may feel achy, shooting or cramplike and may be worse at night
  • GBS manifests as a rapidly evolving areflexic motor paralysis with or without sensory disturbance.
  • The usual pattern is an ascending paralysis that may be first noticed as rubbery legs.
  • Weakness typically evolves over hours to a few days and is frequently accompanied by tingling dysesthesias in the extremities.
  • The legs are usually more affected than the arms, and facial diparesis is present in 50% of affected individuals.
  • The lower cranial nerves are also frequently involved, causing bulbar weakness with difficulty handling secretions and maintaining an airway.
  • Pain in the neck, shoulder, back, or diffusely over the spine is also common.
  • Deep tendon reflexes attenuate or disappear within the first few days of onset.
  • Cutaneous sensory deficits (e.g., loss of pain and temperature sensation) are usually relatively mild.
  • Wide fluctuations in blood pressure, postural hypotension, and cardiac dysrhythmias.


  1. Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP)
  2. Acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN)
  3. Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS)
  4. Acute pharyngeal cervicobrachial neuropathy (APCBN)


GBS results from immune responses to nonself antigens (infectious agents, vaccines) that misdirect to host nerve tissue through a resemblance-of-epitope (molecular mimicry) mechanism. The neural targets are likely to be gangliosides. Gangliosides are present in large quantity in human nervous tissues, such as nodes of Ranvier.


BLOOD CBC,CRP, Antiganglioside antibodies



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