Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity disorder

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)


  1. Genetic
  2. Blood relatives, such as a parent or sibling, with ADHD or another mental health disorder
  3. Neural- Dopamine and Noradrenaline are increased
  4. Environmental -prenatal exposure to a variety of substances including nicotine, alcohol, prescription medications, and illicit substances.
  5. Environmental exposure to lead, organophosphate pesticides
  6. Trauma
  7. Infection
  8. Minimal brain damage
  9. Premature birth


Inattentive symptoms

  • Does not give  close  attention  to  details  or  makes  careless  mistakes
  • Has difficulty  sustaining  attention  on  tasks  or  play  activities
  • Does not  seem  to  listen  when  directly  spoken  to
  • Does not  follow  through  on  instructions  and  does  not  finish  schoolwork,  chores,  or  duties  in  the  workplace  Has  trouble  organizing  tasks  or  activities
  • Avoids, dislikes,  or  is  reluctant  to  do  tasks  that  need  sustained  mental effort
  • Loses things  needed  for  tasks  or  activities
  • Easily distracted
  • Forgetful in  daily  activities

Hypreactivity/ Impulsive symptoms

  • Fidgets with  or  taps  hands  or  feet,  or  squirms  in  seat
  • Leaves seat  in  situations  when  staying  seated  is  expected
  • Runs about  or  climbs  when  not  appropriate  (may  present  as  feelings of restlessness in adolescents or adults)
  • Unable to  play  or  undertake  leisure  activities  quietly
  • “On the  go,”  acting  as  if  “driven  by  a  motor”
  • Talks excessively  Blurts  out  answers  before  a  question  has  been  finished
  • Has difficulty  waiting  his  or  her  turn  Interrupts  or  intrudes  on  others


    Children with ADHD

    • Often struggle in the classroom, which can lead to academic failure and judgment by other children and adults
    • Tend to have more accidents and injuries of all kinds than do children who don’t have ADHD
    • Tend to have poor self-esteem
    • Are more likely to have trouble interacting with and being accepted by peers and adults
    • Are at increased risk of alcohol and drug abuse and other delinquent behavior

      Coexisting conditions

      ADHD doesn’t cause other psychological or developmental problems. However, children with ADHD are more likely than others to also have conditions such as:

      • Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), generally defined as a pattern of negative, defiant and hostile behavior toward authority figures
      • Conduct disorder, marked by antisocial behavior such as stealing, fighting, destroying property, and harming people or animals
      • Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, characterized by irritability and problems tolerating frustration
      • Learning disabilities, including problems with reading, writing, understanding and communicating
      • Substance use disorders, including drugs, alcohol and smoking
      • Anxiety disorders, which may cause overwhelming worry and nervousness, and include obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)
      • Mood disorders, including depression and bipolar disorder, which includes depression as well as manic behavior
      • Autism spectrum disorder, a condition related to brain development that impacts how a person perceives and socializes with others
      • Tic disorder or Tourette syndrome, disorders that involve repetitive movements or unwanted sounds (tics) that can’t be easily controlled


        To help reduce your child’s risk of ADHD:

        • During pregnancy, avoid anything that could harm fetal development. For example, don’t drink alcohol, use recreational drugs or smoke cigarettes.
        • Protect your child from exposure to pollutants and toxins, including cigarette smoke and lead paint.
        • Limit screen time. Although still unproved, it may be prudent for children to avoid excessive exposure to TV and video games in the first five years of life.


ADHD is diagnosed clinically by history. The reports of parents, teachers, and others, including teenage self-report, are core to its diagnosis.


Psychotherapy-Behaviour modification and counselling are very important in the successful management  of ADHD and can be used along with drug therapy.

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