Anxiety is the commonest psychiatric symptom in clinical practice and anxiety disorders are one of the commonest psychiatric disorders in general population.
Anxiety is a ‘normal’ phenomenon, which is characterised by a state of apprehension or unease arising out of anticipation of danger.
- Muscle twitches
- Fearful facial expression
- Palpitations; Tachycardia
- Sweating; Flushes
- Constriction in the chest
- Dry mouth
- Frequency and hesitancy of micturition
- Poor concentration;
- Vigilance or scanning
- Negative automatic thoughts
- Inability to relax
- Feeling of impending doom
- Insomnia (initial)
- Increased sensitivity to noise
- Exaggerated startle response
Types of anxiety disorder
- Agoraphobia is a type of anxiety disorder in which you fear and often avoid places or situations that might cause you to panic and make you feel trapped, helpless or embarrassed.
- Anxiety disorder due to a medical condition includes symptoms of intense anxiety or panic that are directly caused by a physical health problem.
- Generalized anxiety disorder includes persistent and excessive anxiety and worry about activities or events — even ordinary, routine issues. The worry is out of proportion to the actual circumstance, is difficult to control and affects how you feel physically. It often occurs along with other anxiety disorders or depression.
- Panic disorder involves repeated episodes of sudden feelings of intense anxiety and fear or terror that reach a peak within minutes (panic attacks). You may have feelings of impending doom, shortness of breath, chest pain, or a rapid, fluttering or pounding heart (heart palpitations).
- Heart disease
- Thyroid problems, such as hyperthyroidism
- Respiratory disorders, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma
- Drug misuse or withdrawal
- Withdrawal from alcohol, anti-anxiety medications (benzodiazepines) or other medications
- Chronic pain or irritable bowel syndrome
- Financial stress
- Excess pampering of child
Anxiety disorder symptoms can be attributed to chemical imbalances in the brain. The neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are specifically believed to be linked to Anxiety disorder.
- Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that is largely associated with mood, sleep, appetite, and other regulatory functions in the body. Experts have also found that reduced levels of serotonin are connected to anxiety.
- Dopamine influences, among other functions, a person’s energy levels, attention, rewards, and movement, which may lead to anxiety symptoms if imbalanced.
- Norepinephrine is also related to anxiety as it involves the fight-or-flight response, or how a person reacts to stress.
- GABA plays a role in balancing excitement or agitation and feelings of calm and relaxation.
- Depression (which often occurs with an anxiety disorder) or other mental health disorders
- Substance misuse
- Trouble sleeping (insomnia)
- Digestive or bowel problems
- Headaches and chronic pain
- Social isolation
- Problems functioning at school or work
- Poor quality of life
- Avoid Stress
- Avoid alcohol
- Avoid smoking
- Regular exercise
- Regular sleep pattern
- Treat the medical condition
- Don’t pamper the children too much
- Stay active.Participate in activities that you enjoy and that make you feel good about yourself. Enjoy social interaction and caring relationships, which can lessen your worries.
- Breathing exercise
- Homeopathy medicine