The term influenza represents both a clinically defined respiratory illness accompanied by systemic symptoms of fever, malaise, and myalgia and the name of the orthomyxoviruses that cause this syndrome.
Three influenza viruses occur in humans: A, B, and C. These have a lipid envelope and prominent spikes that are formed by the two surface glycoproteins, hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N).
Virus attaches to sialic acid cell receptors via the hemagglutinin.Neuraminidase degrades the receptor and plays a role in the release of virus from infected cells after replication has occurred.
Antibodies to the H antigen are the major determinants of immunity, while antibodies to the N antigen limit viral spread and contribute to reduction of the infection.
There are 18 different hemagglutinin subtypes and 11 different neuraminidase subtypes (H1 through H18 and N1 through N11, respectively).
Mode of spread
Influenza viruses travel through the air in droplets when someone with the infection coughs, sneezes or talks. You can inhale the droplets directly, or you can pick up the germs from an object — such as a telephone or computer keyboard — and then transfer them to your eyes, nose or mouth.
People with the virus are likely contagious from about a day before symptoms appear until about five days after they start. Children and people with weakened immune systems may be contagious for a slightly longer time.
Influenza viruses are constantly changing, with new strains appearing regularly. If you’ve had influenza in the past, your body has already made antibodies to fight that specific strain of the virus. If future influenza viruses are similar to those you’ve encountered before, either by having the disease or by getting vaccinated, those antibodies may prevent infection or lessen its severity. But antibody levels may decline over time.
Also, antibodies against influenza viruses you’ve encountered in the past may not protect you from new influenza strains that can be very different viruses from what you had before.
People at higher risk of developing flu complications include
- Young children under age 5, and especially those under 6 months
- Adults older than age 65
- Residents of nursing homes and other long-term care facilities
- Pregnant women and women up to two weeks after giving birth
- People with weakened immune systems
- People who have chronic illnesses, such as asthma, heart disease, kidney disease, liver disease and diabetes,cancer
- People who are obese
- Long-term use of steroids, organ transplant, blood cancer or HIV/AIDS
The symptoms typically begin within 48–72 h of exposure.
- Aching muscles
- Chills and sweats
- Dry, persistent cough
- Shortness of breath
- Tiredness and weakness
- Runny or stuffy nose
- Sore throat
- Eye pain
- Vomiting and diarrhea
- Asthma flare-ups
- Heart problems
- Ear infections
- Acute respiratory distress syndrome
- Wash your hands often with soap and water, or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer.
- Cover your mouth and nose with your elbow or tissue when you cough or sneeze.
- Avoid touching your eyes, nose and mouth if your hands aren’t clean.
- Avoid close contact with anyone who is sick.
- Avoid large events and mass gatherings.
- Avoid sharing dishes, glasses, bedding and other household items if you’re sick.
- Clean and disinfect surfaces you often touch on a daily basis.
- Stay home from work, school and public areas if you’re sick, unless you’re going to get medical care. Avoid taking public transportation if you’re sick.
- Maintain at least 1 metre (3 feet) distance between yourself and anyone who is coughing or sneezing
- Refrain from smoking and other activities that weaken the lungs.
MECHANISM OF ACTION OF HOMEOPATHIC MEDICINE
Homeopathic medicine induce IgG,IgM,IgA antibodies
Homeopathic medicine prevent adsorption of the virus to the cell receptor
Homeopathic medicine cause enhanced virus degradation
Homeopathic medicine prevent release of progeny virus from infected cell
Homeopathic medicine cause surface damage to enveloped virions and producing cytolysis of virus infected cells
Homeopathic medicine stimulate the macrophages to phagocytose virus