Vaginal fungal infection(candidiasis)

This infection is most commonly caused by Candida albicans, which can be found in the vaginas of asymptomatic patients and is a commensal of the mouth, rectum, and vagina.

Risk factors

  1. Warmer climates
  2. Obese patients
  3. Immunosuppression
  4. Diabetes mellitus
  5. Pregnancy
  6. Recent broad-spectrum antibiotic use
  7. Oral-genital sex
  8. Oral contraceptives or hormone therapy
  9. Oral sex
  10. Douching
  11. Cigarette smoking
  12. Sex during menses
  13. Intrauterine device
  14. Early age of sexual intercourse
  15. New or multiple sexual partners
  16. Sexual activity with other women
  17. Alcohol
  18. HIV infection
  19. Immunosuppressive drugs


  • Pruritus of vagina,vulva
  • Vagina pain
  • Vulvar erythema, and edema
  • Vagina excoriations
  • Vaginal discharge is described as cottage cheese-like
  • Dysuria(burning pain while urinating)
  • Dyspareunia(painful  intercourse)


Bacteria exist in a symbiotic relationship with the host and are alterable, depending on the microenvironment. Within this vaginal ecosystem, some microorganisms produce substances such as lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide that inhibit nonindigenous organisms.

Typically, the vaginal pH ranges between 4 and 4.5. It is believed to result from Lactobacillus species’ production of lactic acid, fatty acids, and other organic acids. Other bacteria can also contribute organic acids from protein catabolism, and anaerobic bacteria contribute by amino acid fermentation. Glycogen is present in healthy vaginal mucosa, provides nutrients for many species in the vaginal ecosystem, and is metabolized to lactic acid Accordingly, as glycogen content within vaginal epithelial cells diminishes after menopause, this decreased substrate for acid production leads to a rise in vaginal pH.


  • To reduce your risk of vaginal yeast infections, wear underwear that has a cotton crotch and doesn’t fit too tightly.
  • Avoid tight-fitting pantyhose
  • Avoid douching, which removes some of the normal bacteria in the vagina that protect you from infection
  • Avoid scented feminine products, including bubble bath, pads and tampons
  • Avoid hot tubs and very hot baths
  • Avoid unnecessary antibiotic use, such as for colds or other viral infections
  • Avoid staying in wet clothes, such as swimsuits and workout attire, for long periods of time


  1. History
  2. Vaginal examination
  3. Blood CBC,CRP,FBS
  4. Vaginal candidal culture
  5. Urine analysis



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