Hemorrhoidal cushions are a normal part of the anal canal. The vascular structures contained within this tissue aid in continence by preventing damage to the sphincter muscle. Three main hemorrhoidal complexes traverse the anal canal— the left lateral, the right anterior, and the right posterior. Engorgement and straining lead to prolapse of this tissue into the anal canal.

Hemorrhoids are classified according to their position relative to the dentate line. Hemorrhoids are commonly classified as external or internal.

Grade I hemorrhoids bleed but do not prolapse

Grade II hemorrhoids prolapse outside the anal canal but reduce spontaneously.

Grade III hemorrhoids protrude outside the anal canal and usually require manual reduction.

Grade IV hemorrhoids are irreducible and constantly prolapsed.


  1. Pregnancy due to progesterone hormone
  2. Chronic constipation
  3. Diarrhea
  4. Prolonged straining
  5. Weight lifting
  6. Weakening of supporting tissue as a result of aging
  7. Genetic
  8. Familial
  9. Obese
  10. Abdominal tumor
  11. Lack of fiber in food
  12. Sedentary work
  13. Urethral stricture
  14. Carcinoma rectum


External hemorrhoids

  • Itching or irritation in your anal region
  • Pain or discomfort
  • Swelling around your anus
  • Bleeding

Internal hemorrhoids

  • Internal hemorrhoids lie inside the rectum. You usually can’t see or feel them, and they rarely cause discomfort.
  • Painless bleeding during bowel movements. You might notice small amounts of bright red blood on your toilet tissue or in the toilet.
  • A hemorrhoid to push through the anal opening (prolapsed or protruding hemorrhoid), resulting in pain and irritation.
  • Anemia

Thrombosed hemorrhoids

  • If blood pools in an external hemorrhoid and forms a clot (thrombus), it can result in:
  • Severe pain
  • Swelling
  • Inflammation
  • A hard lump near your anus



Per rectum examination




  • Eat high-fiber foods. Eat more fruits, vegetables and whole grains. Doing so softens the stool and increases its bulk, which will help you avoid the straining
  • Drink plenty of fluids.3-4 liters of water
  • Don’t strain. Straining and holding your breath when trying to pass a stool creates greater pressure in the veins in the lower rectum.
  • Stay active to help prevent constipation and to reduce pressure on veins, which can occur with long periods of standing or sitting. Exercise can also help you lose excess weight that might be contributing to your hemorrhoids.
  • Avoid long periods of sitting. Sitting too long, particularly on the toilet, can increase the pressure on the veins in the anus.
  • Go as soon as you feel the urge. If you wait to pass a bowel movement and the urge goes away, your stool could dry out and be harder to pass.








Leave a Comment