Rhinoviruses are nonenveloped, single-stranded RNA viruses in the family Picornaviridae that together are the major cause of the “common cold” (up to 50% of cases). The three species of rhinovirus (A, B, and C) include around 160 recognized types of human rhinovirus that differ according to their surface proteins.
Modes of transmission
Rhinoviruses are spread by direct contact with infected secretions, usually respiratory droplets, fomites(contaminated surfaces). The changes in temperature, humidity and wind patterns seem to be factors. It is also postulated that poor housing, overcrowding and unsanitary conditions related to poverty are relevant factors in the transmission of ‘common cold’.
Those most affected by rhinoviruses are infants, the elderly, and immunocompromised patients
Incubation period –1–2 days
Patients develop rhinorrhea, sneezing, nasal congestion, and sore throat ,headach,facial pain that lasts 4–9 days.
Severe disease, including fatal pneumonia, is rare but has been described in immunocompromised patients, particularly bone marrow transplant recipients.
Rhinovirus A and B use “major” ICAM1 (Inter-Cellular Adhesion Molecule 1), also known as CD54 (Cluster of Differentiation 54), on respiratory epithelial cells, as receptor to bind to. Some subgroups under A and B uses the “minor” LDL receptor.
Rhinovirus C uses cadherin- related family member 3(CBHR3) to mediate cellular entry. As the virus replicates and spreads, infected cells release distress signals known as CHEMOKINES and cytokines (which in turn activate inflammatory mediators). Cell lysis occurs at the upper respiratory epithelium.
- Wash your hands often with soap and water, or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer.
- Cover your mouth and nose with your elbow or tissue when you cough or sneeze.
- Avoid touching your eyes, nose and mouth if your hands aren’t clean.
- Avoid close contact with anyone who is sick.
- Avoid large events and mass gatherings.
- Avoid sharing dishes, glasses, bedding and other household items if you’re sick.
- Clean and disinfect surfaces you often touch on a daily basis.
- Stay home from work, school and public areas if you’re sick, unless you’re going to get medical care. Avoid taking public transportation if you’re sick.
- Maintain at least 1 metre (3 feet) distance between yourself and anyone who is coughing or sneezing
- Refrain from smoking and other activities that weaken the lungs.
Diagnosis -nasopharyngeal PCR.