Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection in any part of your urinary system — your kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra. Most infections involve the lower urinary tract — the bladder and the urethra.

UTI encompasses a variety of clinical entities

  • Cystitis (symptomatic disease of the bladder)
  • Pyelonephritis (symptomatic disease of the kidney)
  • Prostatitis (symptomatic disease of the prostate)
  • Asymptomatic bacteriuria (abu)


  • In women, the ascent of organisms into the bladder is easier than in men; the urethra is shorter and absence of bactericidal prostatic secretions may be relevant. Sexual intercourse may cause minor urethral trauma and transfer bacteria from the perineum into the bladder.
  • All women are at risk of cystitis because of their anatomy — specifically, the short distance from the urethra to the anus and the urethral opening to the bladder.
  • Menopause. After menopause, a decline in circulating estrogen causes changes in the urinary tract that make you more vulnerable to infection.
  • Certain types of birth control. Women who use diaphragms for birth control may be at higher risk, as well as women who use spermicidal agents.
  • Frequent sexual intercourse.
  • Multiple sexual partner.
  • Infection with mainly E.coli, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Klebsiella, Proteus species, Enterococcus species, Candida,HSV etc.
  • Diabetes mellitus.
  • Atrophic urethritis and vaginitis in post-menopausal women.
  • Incontinence of urine.
  • Instrumentation of the bladder may also introduce organism- Urethral catheter,ureteric stent.
  • Uterine prolapse.
  • Vesico-ureteric reflux.


Clinical Features

1.Asymptomatic Bacteriuria

It is diagnosed when a screening urine culture performed for a reason unrelated to the genitourinary tract is incidentally found to contain bacteria, but the pt has no local or systemic symptoms referable to the urinary tract.


  • Dysuria -scalding pain in the urethra during micturition
  • Urinary frequency, and urgency
  • Nocturia,
  • Hesitancy
  • Strangury -intense desire to pass more urine after micturition due to spasm of the inflamed bladder wall
  • Suprapubic discomfort
  • Gross hematuria
  • Fever
  • Chill
  • Pain abdomen
  • Urine that appears cloudy
  • Blood in urine


  • Fever
  • Lower-back or costovertebral-angle pain
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Bacteremia


  • Dysuria
  • Urinary frequency
  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Symptoms of bladder outlet obstruction
  • Pain in the prostatic, pelvic ,perineal area.


  • Permanent kidney damage from an acute or chronic kidney infection (pyelonephritis) due to an untreated UTI.
  • Increased risk in pregnant women of delivering low birth weight or premature infants.
  • Sepsis, a potentially life-threatening complication of an infection.


  1. Drink plenty of liquids, especially water. Drinking water helps dilute your urine and ensures that you’ll urinate more frequently — allowing bacteria to be flushed from your urinary tract before an infection can begin.
  2. Wipe from front to back. Doing so after urinating and after a bowel movement helps prevent bacteria in the anal region from spreading to the vagina and urethra
  3. Empty your bladder soon after intercourse. Also, drink a full glass of water to help flush bacteria.
  4. Avoid potentially irritating feminine products. Using deodorant sprays or other feminine products, such as douches and powders, in the genital area can irritate the urethra.
  5. Change your birth control method. Diaphragms, or unlubricated or spermicide-treated condoms, can all contribute to bacterial growth.
  6. Eat fruits that contain vitaminC,vitamin A.


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