Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection in any part of your urinary system — your kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra. Most infections involve the lower urinary tract — the bladder and the urethra.
UTI encompasses a variety of clinical entities
- Cystitis (symptomatic disease of the bladder)
- Pyelonephritis (symptomatic disease of the kidney)
- Prostatitis (symptomatic disease of the prostate)
- Asymptomatic bacteriuria (abu)
- In women, the ascent of organisms into the bladder is easier than in men; the urethra is shorter and absence of bactericidal prostatic secretions may be relevant. Sexual intercourse may cause minor urethral trauma and transfer bacteria from the perineum into the bladder.
- All women are at risk of cystitis because of their anatomy — specifically, the short distance from the urethra to the anus and the urethral opening to the bladder.
- Menopause. After menopause, a decline in circulating estrogen causes changes in the urinary tract that make you more vulnerable to infection.
- Certain types of birth control. Women who use diaphragms for birth control may be at higher risk, as well as women who use spermicidal agents.
- Frequent sexual intercourse.
- Multiple sexual partner.
- Infection with mainly E.coli, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Klebsiella, Proteus species, Enterococcus species, Candida,HSV etc.
- Diabetes mellitus.
- Atrophic urethritis and vaginitis in post-menopausal women.
- Incontinence of urine.
- Instrumentation of the bladder may also introduce organism- Urethral catheter,ureteric stent.
- Uterine prolapse.
- Vesico-ureteric reflux.
It is diagnosed when a screening urine culture performed for a reason unrelated to the genitourinary tract is incidentally found to contain bacteria, but the pt has no local or systemic symptoms referable to the urinary tract.
- Dysuria -scalding pain in the urethra during micturition
- Urinary frequency, and urgency
- Strangury -intense desire to pass more urine after micturition due to spasm of the inflamed bladder wall
- Suprapubic discomfort
- Gross hematuria
- Pain abdomen
- Urine that appears cloudy
- Blood in urine
- Lower-back or costovertebral-angle pain
- Urinary frequency
- Symptoms of bladder outlet obstruction
- Pain in the prostatic, pelvic ,perineal area.
- Permanent kidney damage from an acute or chronic kidney infection (pyelonephritis) due to an untreated UTI.
- Increased risk in pregnant women of delivering low birth weight or premature infants.
- Sepsis, a potentially life-threatening complication of an infection.
- Drink plenty of liquids, especially water. Drinking water helps dilute your urine and ensures that you’ll urinate more frequently — allowing bacteria to be flushed from your urinary tract before an infection can begin.
- Wipe from front to back. Doing so after urinating and after a bowel movement helps prevent bacteria in the anal region from spreading to the vagina and urethra
- Empty your bladder soon after intercourse. Also, drink a full glass of water to help flush bacteria.
- Avoid potentially irritating feminine products. Using deodorant sprays or other feminine products, such as douches and powders, in the genital area can irritate the urethra.
- Change your birth control method. Diaphragms, or unlubricated or spermicide-treated condoms, can all contribute to bacterial growth.
- Eat fruits that contain vitaminC,vitamin A.