Seizures and Epilepsy

Seizures and Epilepsy

A seizure is a transient occurrence of signs or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.

Epilepsy describes a condition in which a person has a risk of recurrent seizures due to a chronic, underlying process.


  1. Focal seizures

a.Focal seizures without loss of consciousness. Once called simple partial seizures, these seizures don’t cause a loss of consciousness. They may alter emotions or change the way things look, smell, feel, taste or sound. They may also result in involuntary jerking of a body part, such as an arm or leg, and spontaneous sensory symptoms such as tingling, dizziness and flashing lights.


b.Focal seizures with loss of consciousness. Once called complex partial seizures, these seizures involve a change or loss of consciousness or awareness. During a complex partial seizure, you may stare into space and not respond normally to your environment or perform repetitive movements, such as hand rubbing, chewing, swallowing

  1. Generalized seizures
  2. Absence Typical -Atypical Absence seizures, previously known as petit mal seizures, often occur in children and are characterized by staring into space or subtle body movements such as eye blinking or lip smacking. These seizures may occur in clusters and cause a brief loss of awareness.
  3. Tonic clonic – Tonic-clonic seizures, previously known as grand mal seizures cause an abrupt loss of consciousness, body stiffening and shaking, and sometimes loss of bladder control or biting your tongue.
  4. Clonic – Clonic seizures are associated with repeated or rhythmic, jerking muscle movements. These seizures usually affect the neck, face and arms.
  5. Tonic – Tonic seizures cause stiffening of your muscles. These seizures usually affect muscles in your back, arms and legs and may cause you to fall to the ground.
  6. Atonic – Atonic seizures, also known as drop seizures, cause a loss of muscle control, which may cause you to suddenly collapse or fall down.
  7. Myoclonic– Myoclonic seizures usually appear as sudden brief jerks or twitches of your arms and legs.


  1. Perinatal hypoxia and ischemia
  2. Intracranial hemorrhage and trauma
  3. CNS infection
  4. Metabolic disturbances (hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, pyridoxine deficiency)
  5. Drug withdrawal
  6. Developmental disorders
  7. Genetic disorders
  8. Febrile seizures
  9. Trauma
  10. Alcohol withdrawal
  11. Illicit drug use
  12. Brain tumor
  13. Autoantibodies
  14. Cerebrovascular disease
  15. Metabolic disorders (uremia, hepatic failure, electrolyte abnormalities, hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia)
  16. Alzheimer’s disease
  17. Subdural hematoma
  • Organophosphorus Poison(Op Poison)-Malathoin, Tetron, Parathion,Chlorthoin,Diazion(Tik 20)
  • Organo Chlorines-Ddt,Aldrin,Endrin,Endosulfan,Benzene Hexa Chloride
  • Paraquat(Weedol)
  • Flourides(Sodium Flourides)
  • Zinc Phosphide
  • Aluminum Phosphide


  • Alkylating agents (e.g., busulfan, chlorambucil)
  • Antidepressants
  • Antimalarials (chloroquine, mefloquine)
  • Antimicrobials/antivirals  β-Lactam ,Quinolones ,Acyclovir ,Isoniazid, Ganciclovir
  • Anesthetics and analgesics- Meperidine ,Tramadol
  • Local anesthetics
  • Immunomodulatory drugs- Cyclosporine ,Tacrolimus, Interferons
  • Antipsychotics Lithium
  • Radiographic contrast agents- Theophylline
  • Sedative-hypnotic drug withdrawal- Alcohol ,Barbiturates ,Benzodiazepines
  • Drugs of abuse –Amphetamine, Cocaine, Phencyclidine ,Methylphenidate



  • Avoid Sleep deprivation
  • Avoid Alcohol (particularly withdrawal)
  • Avoid Recreational drug misuse
  • Avoid Physical and mental exhaustion
  • Avoid Flickering lights, including TV and computer screens
  • Avoid Loud noises, music, reading,
  • Avoid Hot baths
  • Avoid allopathy drugs
  • Avoid pesticides,weedicide


  1. The normal brain is capable of having a seizure under the appropriate circumstances, and there are differences between individuals in the susceptibility or threshold for seizures. Endogenous factors that influence the threshold for having a seizure. Some of these factors are genetic, as a family history of epilepsy
  2. Brain injury to lead to epilepsy-transforms a presumably normal neural network into one that is abnormally hyperexcitable. This process is known as epileptogenesis, and the specific changes that result in a lowered seizure threshold can be considered epileptogenic factors. Other processes associated with epileptogenesis include stroke, infections, and abnormalities of CNS development.

3.Precipitating factors – physical stress, sleep deprivation, or hormonal changes.



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