Sadness of mood is usually associated with pessimism, which can result in three common types of depressive ideas.

  1. Hopelessness (there is no hope in the future).
  2. Helplessness (no help is possible now).
  3. Worthlessness (feeling of inadequacy and inferiority).The ideas of worthlessness can lead to self reproach and guilt-feelings.

Difficulty In Thinking.

Difficulty In Concentration.


Slowed Thinking.

Lack Of Initiative And Energy.

Ruminations (repetitive, intrusive thoughts) with pessimistic ideas.

Suicidal Ideas May Be Present.


Restlessness (inability to sit still, hand wriggling, picking at body parts or other objects.

Irritability may present as easy annoyance and frustration in day-to-day activities, e.g. unusual anger at the noise made by children in the house.


Stress due to

  • Death of spouse
  • Divorce
  • Detention in jail
  • Major physical injury
  • Marriage
  • Being fired at job
  • Marital reconciliation
  • Retirement from work
  • Pregnancy
  • Gaining new family member(child birth, adoption)
  • Sex difficulties
  • Major business readjustment(merger, bankruptcy)
  • Financial need
  • Son or daughter leaving home(marriage, attending college)
  • Trouble with in-laws
  • Beginning or ceasing formal school
  • Change to new school
  • Trouble with boss

Depression with Medical Illness

  • Cancer
  • Diabetes Mellitus
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Neurologic Disorders
  • HIV-Positive Individuals , etc

Physical Symptoms

  • Heaviness Of Head.
  • Vague Body Aches.
  • Insomnia (Loss Of Sleep), Early Morning Awakening, At Least 2 (Or More) Hours Before The Usual Time Of Awakening
  • Loss Of Appetite .
  • Loss Of Weight .
  • Loss Of Sexual Drive.
  • Pervasive  Loss Of Interest And Loss Of Reactivity To Pleasurable Stimuli.
  • Suicidal thought


Risk factors for suicide

  • Older age
  • Male sex
  • Living alone
  • Unemployed
  • Recently bereaved, divorced or separated
  • Chronic physical ill health
  • Drug or alcohol misuse
  • Suicide note written
  • History of previous attempts (especially if a violent method was used)


Relaxation Technic


Breathing exercise

Aerobic exercise

Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT).

This aims at correcting depressive negative cognition (ideations) such as  hopelessness,  worthlessness,  helplessness and pessimistic ideas, and replacing them by new cognitive and behavioural responses.

Interpersonal Therapy Interpersonal therapy (IPT) .

This attempts to recognise and explore interpersonal stressors, role disputes and transitions, social isolation, or social skills deficits, which act as precipitants for depression.

Behaviour Therapy .

This includes the various short-term modal ities such as social skills training; problem solving techniques, assertiveness training, self-control the rapy, activity scheduling and decision-making techniques.

Family and Marital Therapy.

These therapies can however help decrease the intrafamilial and interpersonal difficulties, and to reduce or modify stressors, which may help in a faster and more complete recovery.

Homeopathy medicines.









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