Diphtheria is a nasopharyngeal and skin infection caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Toxigenic strains of C. diphtheriae produce a protein toxin that causes systemic toxicity, myocarditis, and polyneuropathy. The toxin is associated with the formation of pseudomembranes in the pharynx during respiratory diphtheria Mode of transmission The secretions and discharges from infected person or carrier are


Polycythemia vera is a type of blood cancer. It causes your bone marrow to make too many red blood cells. These excess cells thicken your blood, slowing its flow, which may cause serious problems, such as blood clots. PV is a clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorder in which phenotypically normal red cells, granulocytes, and platelets


Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is an enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus and a member of the family Paramyxoviridae. Epidemiology With an attack rate approaching 100% among susceptible individuals, HRSV is a major respiratory pathogen among young children (particularly those 2–3 months of age) and the foremost cause of lower respiratory disease among infants. HRSV accounts

Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

Normal menstruation typically occurs every 28 days ±7 days. Cycles with intervals longer than 35 days describe a state of oligomenorrhea. Menorrhagia is defined as prolonged or heavy cyclic menstruation. Objectively, menses lasting longer than 7 days or exceeding 80 mL of blood loss. Metrorrhagia describes intermenstrual bleeding. Hypomenorrhea there is diminished flow or shortening


Cellulitis is inflammation, usually infective, of subcutaneous tissue Cellulitis is a common, potentially serious bacterial skin infection. The affected skin appears swollen and red and is typically painful and warm to the touch.Cellulitis usually affects the skin on the lower legs, but it can occur in the face, arms and other areas. Causes Cellulitis occurs


Laryngitis is an inflammation of your voice box (larynx) Causes Viral infections. Bacterial invasion takes place with Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Hemolytic streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus. Exanthemata fevers, such as measles, mumps, and chickenpox. Chronic sinusitis Excessive alcohol use Habitual overuse of your voice (such as in singers or cheerleaders, by speaking too much, speaking

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia [BLOOD CANCER]

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia [BLOOD CANCER] Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is a type of cancer of the white blood cells and bone marrow . It is the most common type of cancer in children, and treatments result in a good chance for a cure. Age of occurance-newbrorn-14years Causes Exposure to ionizing radiation or to chemicals Nuclear reactor accident


HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS INFECTIONS DEFINITION Herpes simplex viruses (HSV-1, HSV-2; Herpesvirus hominis) produce a variety of infections involving mucocutaneous surfaces, the central nervous system (CNS), and visceral organs. RISK FACTOR Oral sex Commercial sex worker Cigarette smoking Sex during menses Intrauterine device Early age of sexual intercourse New or multiple sexual partners Women Sexual activity


DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS Sugar is a main source of energy for the cells that make up your muscles and other tissues. Normally, insulin helps sugar enter your cells. Without enough insulin, your body can’t use sugar properly for energy. This prompts the release of hormones that break down fat as fuel, which produces acids known as


PREMENSTRUAL SYNDROME Frequently, women of reproductive age experience symptoms during the late luteal phase of their menstrual cycle, and collectively these complaints are termed premenstrual syndrome (PMS) or premenstrual tension (PMT). Nearly 300 different symptoms have been reported and typically include both psychiatric and physical complaints. SYMPTOMS Symptoms must begin at least 5 days before


Endometriosis Endometriosis is a common benign gynecologic disorder defined as the presence of endometrial glands and stroma outside of the normal location. Risk factors Never giving birth Early menarche Late menopause Heavy menstrual periods that last longer than seven days Having higher levels of estrogen in your body or a greater lifetime exposure to estrogen


Influenza(FLU) The term influenza represents both a clinically defined respiratory illness accompanied by systemic symptoms of fever, malaise, and myalgia and the name of the orthomyxoviruses that cause this syndrome. Three influenza viruses occur in humans: A, B, and C. These have a lipid envelope and prominent spikes that are formed by the two surface

Acute supraspinatus tendinitis

Acute supraspinatus tendinitis Causes 1.Age-As people get older, their tendons become less flexible — which makes them easier to injure. 2.Occupation Repetitive motions Awkward positions Frequent overhead reaching Vibration Forceful exertion Working on computer Heavy manual labor job 3.Sports You may be more likely to develop tendinitis if you participate in certain sports that involve


SHOULDER PAIN ROTATOR CUFF TENDONITIS The rotator cuff is a group of muscles that attach via tendons to the head of the upper arm bone (the humerus). The function of the cuff is to center the head of the humerus in the socket and move the arm. These tendons are in a constant state of


ACUTE PANCREATITIS BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF PANCREATIC EXOCRINE SECRETION The pancreas secretes 1500–3000 mL of isosmotic alkaline (pH >8) fluid per day containing about 20 enzymes. The pancreatic secretions provide the enzymes and bicarbonate needed to affect the major digestive activity of the gastrointestinal tract and provide an optimal pH for the function of these


ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS (Marie strumpelldisease) Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic disease characterised by a progressive inflammatory stiffening of the joints, with a predilection for the joints of the axial skeleton, especially the sacroiliac joints. This is a disease of young adults, more common in males Pathology Sacro-iliac joints are usually the first to get involved; followed


STOMACH CANCER The disease remains the third most frequent cause of worldwide cancer related death. CAUSES Alcohol Smoking Tobacco GERD A diet low in fruits and vegetables Family history of stomach cancer Germline mutation in the E-cadherin gene (CDH1) Mutation of TP53 gene Ingestion of high concentrations of nitrates found in dried,smoked, and salted foods-The

GOLFER’S ELBOW (Medial epicondylitis)

GOLFER’S ELBOW (Medial epicondylitis) This is a condition where the inflammation is at the origin of the flexor tendons at the medial epicondyle of the humerus. Causes The damage is typically related to excess or repeated stress — especially forceful wrist and finger motions. Improper lifting, throwing or hitting, as well as too little warm


COLORECTAL CANCER Cancer of the large bowel is second only to lung cancer as a cause of cancer death. Colon cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the large intestine (colon). The colon is the final part of the digestive tract. CAUSES Family history of colon cancer Low-fiber, high-fat diet.Colon cancer and rectal


TENNIS ELBOW (LATERAL EPICONDYLITIS) This is a condition characterised by pain and tenderness at the lateral epicondyle of the humerus due to non-specific inflammation at the origin of the extensor muscles of the forearm. CAUSES Although, it is sometimes seen in tennis players, other activities such as using Plumbing tools, Painting, Driving screws, Cutting up


CORNS Corns are circumscribed, horny, conical thickenings with the base on the surface and the apex pointing inward and pressing on subjacent structures. TWO VARIETIES: Hard corns, which occur on the dorsa of the toes or on the soles Soft corns, which occur between the toes and are softened by the macerating action of sweat


VERRUCA (WARTS) Warts are caused by human papilloma virus, of which there are more than 100 types. They are transmitted by close contact and auto-inoculation. CAUSES Common warts are caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). The virus is quite common and has more than 100 types, but only a few cause warts on your hands.


ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE(HEART ATTACK) Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is a condition in which there is an inadequate supply of blood and oxygen to a portion of the myocardium; it typically occurs when there is an imbalance between myocardial oxygen supply and demand. Classification 1.Coronary Arterial Syndrome(CAD)-Stable Angina 2.Acute Coronary Syndrome Non-ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (partial


IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME (IBS) Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort and altered bowel habits in the absence of detectable structural abnormalities. IBS symptoms tend to come and go over time and often overlap with other functional disorders such as fibromyalgia, headache, backache, and genitourinary symptoms. CAUSES


FAILURE TO THRIVE Failure to thrive (FTT) is a descriptive term given to infants and young children with malnourishment resulting in inadequate growth. FTT that is symmetric (proportional weight, height/length, and head circumference) suggests long-standing malnutrition, chromosomal abnormalities, congenital infection, or teratogenic exposures. CAUSES Inadequate nutritional intake Poverty Emotional deprivation Rumination Child maltreatment Maternal depression


LUMBAR SPONDYLOSIS(Low Back Pain) Lumbar spondylosis is a normal part of aging.It is the Osteoarthritis of the Lumbar spine may produce low back pain. CAUSES Dehydrated disks.Disks act like cushions between the vertebrae of your spine. By the age of 40, most people’s spinal disks begin drying out and shrinking, which allows more bone-on-bone contact


BENIGN PAROXYSMAL POSITIONAL VERTIGO Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is the most common cause (20–40%) of peripheral vertigo. Age of onset  11–84 years; mean age of onset fourth to fifth decades. Incidence increases with age.Slightly increased incidence in females. CAUSES Most common are closed head injury and vestibular neuronitis (vertigo lasting days) Infections „ Old age


RHINOSINUSITIS (COMMON COLD) Infection and inflammation of nose and sinus CAUSES Approximately 20–30% cases of acute rhinosinusitis are viral. Common viruses are: rhinovirus (most common in adults) ,Corona virus,Parainfluenza viruses, Adenovirus, picorna virus ,Coxsackie ,ECHO viruses ,Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) ,Influenza virus Cold and Hot weather and when the weather changes Swimming and diving: Infected


OTITIS MEDIA (EAR INFECTION) Otitis media (OM) refers to inflammation of middle ear cleft. OM is not only the most common  in children but also a leading cause of hearing loss in children. CAUSES OF Otitis media Bottle feeding (breast feeding is protective)- Feeding bottle: In the supine position, bottle feeding may lead milk to

Rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by a symmetric polyarthritis, the most common form of chronic inflammatory arthritis. Since persistently active RA often results in articular cartilage and bone destruction and functional disability. CLINICAL FEATURES Polyarthritis of peripheral joints with pain, tenderness, and swelling of affected joints Stiffness lasting more


ANXIETY DISORDER Anxiety is the commonest psychiatric symptom in clinical practice and anxiety disorders are one of the commonest psychiatric disorders in general population. Anxiety is a ‘normal’ phenomenon, which is characterised by a state of apprehension or unease arising out of anticipation of danger. SYMPTOMS Tremors Restlessness Muscle twitches Fearful facial expression Palpitations; Tachycardia


MIGRAINE HEADACHE Migraine, the second most common cause of headache. A migraine can cause severe throbbing pain or a pulsing sensation, usually on one side of the head. It’s often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and extreme sensitivity to light and sound. Migraine attacks can last for hours to days, and the pain can be so


ALLERGIC SINUSITIS Sinusitis causes the spaces inside your nose (sinuses) to become inflamed and swollen. This interferes with drainage and causes mucus to build up CAUSES ,RISK FACTORS AND TRIGGERS   DIET-diets low in antioxidants such as vitamin C and vitamin A, magnesium, selenium, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fats (fish oil), Vitamin D deficiency DIET -high


MALARIA Malaria, the most important protozoa disease in humans, is caused by the genus Plasmodium. Four species are pathogenic, P. vivax, P. falciparum, P. malariae and P. ovale, of which the first two occur in India. Mosquitoes usually breed in edges of streams, water tanks, pits, cisterns and overhead tanks fountains burrowed pits, pools, ponds,

Seizures and Epilepsy

Seizures and Epilepsy A seizure is a transient occurrence of signs or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain. Epilepsy describes a condition in which a person has a risk of recurrent seizures due to a chronic, underlying process. CLASSIFICATION OF SEIZURES Focal seizures a.Focal seizures without loss of consciousness.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD)

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) Chronic kidney disease (CKD) encompasses a spectrum of pathophysiologic processes associated with abnormal kidney function and a progressive decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Causes Type 1 or type 2 diabetes High blood pressure Glomerulonephritis Interstitial nephritis Polycystic kidney disease Prolonged obstruction of the urinary tract, from conditions such as enlarged


SCHIZOPHRENIA Schizophrenia is one of the most common, devastating, neuropsychiatric illnesses present in the human population. CAUSES Complex dopamine dysregulation occurs, with hyperdopaminergic activity Withdrawal from friends and family A drop in performance at school Trouble sleeping Irritability or depressed mood Lack of motivation Family history of schizophrenia Alcohol Drug addiction Stress Depression Use of


LUNG CANCER Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death among men and women. CAUSES Cigarette smoking Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) or second-hand smoke Alcohol Tobacco chewing Occupational exposures to asbestos, arsenic, bischloromethyl ether, chromium, mustard gas, nickel and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Ionizing radiation Prolonged exposure to low-level radon Low fruit and vegetable


PUBERTY &PRECOCIOUS PUBERTY PUBERTY Puberty is the period of transition from childhood to adult sexual maturation. It is the period of gradual development of secondary sexual characters. There are profound biological, morphological, and psychological changes that lead to full sexual maturity and eventually fertility The most common order is beginning of the growth spurt →


PARKINSON’S DISEASE Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common age-related neurodegenerative disease. CAUSES Soil in farming activities due use of chemical pesticides, chemical fertilizer Exposure to chemical pesticides that may induce mutation in genes INSECTICIDE,PESTICIDE,RODENTICIDE,WEEDICIDE 1.ORGANOPHOSPHORUS  POISON(OP POISON) Malathoin, Tetron, Parathion,Chlorthoin,Diazion(Tik 20) 2.ORGANO CHLORINES DDT,Aldrin,Endrin,Endosulfan,Benzene Hexa Chloride 3.PARAQUAT(WEEDOL) 4.FLOURIDES(SODIUM FLOURIDES) 5.ZINC PHOSPHIDE 6.ALUMINUM PHOSPHIDE


DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY Muscular dystrophies are a group of genetic muscle diseases characterized by progressive myofiber degeneration and the gradual replacement of muscle by fibrotic tissue. Duchenne muscular dystrophy is the most common muscular dystrophy and one of the most common genetic disorders of childhood. CAUSES Duchenne muscular dystrophy is an X-linked disorder (Xp21) that

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)

SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease in which organs and cells undergo damage initially mediated by tissue-binding autoantibodies and immune complexes. CAUSES Tobacco smoking Drinking alcohol Exposure to crystalline silica e.g., inhalation of soap powder dust Soil in farming activities due use of pesticides, artificial fertilizer Genetic susceptibility Autoimmunity-inducing activation


FUNCTIONAL CONSTIPATION AND SOILING Constipation is decreased frequency of bowel movements, usually associated with a hard stool consistency. The occurrence of pain at defecation frequently accompanies constipation. Functional constipation implies that there is no identifiable causative organic condition. Encopresis Encopresis is the regular, voluntary, or involuntary passage of feces into a place other than the


TEMPER TANTRUMS Temper tantrums include behaviors that occur when the child responds to physical or emotional challenges by drawing attention to himself and can include Yelling, Biting, Crying, Kicking, Pushing, Throwing Objects,  Head Banging, Hitting, Holding the Breath, Pinching,  Tensing Muscles Tantrums typically begin at 18-36 months of age. Inability to assert autonomy or perform


DENGUE FEVER Dengue Infections Dengue fever is an acute illness characterized by fever, myalgia, arthralgia and rash. Severe dengue infection is characterized by abnormalities in hemostasis and by marked leakage of plasma from the capillaries; the latter may lead to shock (dengue shock syndrome). Virus. Dengue fever is caused by infection due to any of


NORMAL DEVELOPMENTAL MILESTONES IN CHILDREN BONDING AND ATTACHMENT IN INFANCY The terms bonding and attachment describe the affective relationships between parents and infants. Bonding occurs shortly after birth and reflects the feelings of the parents toward the newborn (unidirectional). Attachment involves reciprocal feelings between parent and infant and develops gradually over the first year. Stranger


ANAL FISSURE An anal fissure is a small tear in the mucosa that lines the anus. Anal fissures occur at all ages but are more common in the third through the fifth decades. A fissure is the most common cause of rectal bleeding in infancy. The prevalence is equal in males and females. It is


ACNE VULGARIS(PIMPLES) Acne is most common in the teenage years, individual differences relating to severity and the extent of scarring. Peak severity is in the late teenage years but acne may persist into the third decade and beyond, particularly in females. CAUSES Increased sebum excretion is necessary for the development of acne, it is not


DIABETES MELLITUS India is the capital of DIABETES MELLITUS due to change of life style and western diet. Diabetes Mellitus refers to hyperglycemia(high blood sugar) include reduced insulin secretion, decreased glucose utilization, and increased glucose production. Normal glucose level : Fasting blood sugar=80-110 mg/dL Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), characterized by elevations in postprandial glucose(< 126


CHICKENPOX Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes two distinct clinical syndromes: varicella (chickenpox) and herpes zoster (shingles). Chickenpox is highly contagious, with an attack rate of at least 90% among susceptible (seronegative) individuals. Persons of both sexes and all races are infected equally. The virus is endemic in the population at large; however, it becomes epidemic among


  ALOPECIA (HAIR FALL) The two major forms of alopecia are scarring and nonscarring. Scarring alopecia is associated with fibrosis, inflammation, and loss of hair follicles. In nonscarring alopecia, the hair shafts are absent or miniaturized, but the hair follicles are preserved. Alopecia totalis is complete loss of scalp hair. Alopecia universalis is complete loss


HEMORRHOIDAL DISEASE Pathophysiology Hemorrhoidal cushions are a normal part of the anal canal. The vascular structures contained within this tissue aid in continence by preventing damage to the sphincter muscle. Three main hemorrhoidal complexes traverse the anal canal— the left lateral, the right anterior, and the right posterior. Engorgement and straining lead to prolapse of


ASTHMA Asthmatics harbor a special type of inflammation in the airways that makes them more responsive to a wide range of triggers, leading to excessive narrowing with consequent reduced airflow and symptomatic wheezing and dyspnea. CAUSES ,RISK FACTORS AND TRIGGERS DIET-diets low in antioxidants such as vitamin C and vitamin A, magnesium, selenium, and omega-3


GALLSTONES Gallstones are hardened deposits of digestive fluid that can form in your gallbladder. Your gallbladder is a small, pear-shaped organ on the right side of your abdomen, just beneath your liver. The gallbladder holds a digestive fluid called bile that’s released into your small intestine. Types of gallstones 1.Cholesterol gallstones. Cholesterol gallstones usually contain


MUMPS Mumps is an acute systemic communicable viral infection whose most distinctive feature is swelling of one or both saliva-producing (salivary) glands. It is caused by mumps virus, a negative-strand nonsegmented RNA paramyxovirus. CAUSES Mumps is caused by a virus that spreads easily from person to person through infected saliva. If you’re not immune, you


HYPOTHYROIDISM The thyroid gland produces two related hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) is a condition in which your thyroid gland doesn’t produce enough of certain crucial hormones. Types Primary Hypothyroidism Deficient thyroid hormone secretion can be due to thyroid failure. Secondary Hypothyroidism Deficient thyroid hormone secretion can be due to pituitary


GOUT  Gout  is  a  metabolic  disease  that  most  often  affects  middle-aged  to  elderly  men  and  postmenopausal  women.  It  results  from  an  increased  body  pool  of  urate  with  hyperuricemia. Hyperuricemia may  arise in a wide range of settings that cause overproduction or reduced excretion of uric acid or a combination of the two. Causes Gout  occurs 


PEPTIC ULCER A peptic ulcer is defined as disruption of the mucosal integrity of the stomach and/or duodenum leading to a local defect or excavation due to active inflammation. Peptic ulcers include: 1.Gastric ulcers that occur on the inside of the stomach 2.Duodenal ulcers that occur on the inside of the upper portion of your


Infertility Infertility implies apparent failure of a couple to conceive, while sterility indicates absolute inability to conceive, for one or more reasons. If a couple fails to achieve pregnancy after 1 year of ‘unprotected’ and regular intercourse, it is an indication to investigate the couple. 80% of normal couples achieve conception within a year. 50%


CORONAVIRUS Coronaviruses are pleomorphic, single-stranded RNA viruses. Human coronaviruses were known to cause disease: 229E (HCoV-229E) and OC43 (HCoV-OC43).The virus is now known as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The disease it causes is called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). COVID-19  symptoms are usually mild and begin gradually. Some people become infected but