Diphtheria is a nasopharyngeal and skin infection caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Toxigenic strains of C. diphtheriae produce a protein toxin that causes systemic toxicity, myocarditis, and polyneuropathy. The toxin is associated with the formation of pseudomembranes in the pharynx during respiratory diphtheria Mode of transmission The secretions and discharges from infected person or carrier are


Polycythemia vera is a type of blood cancer. It causes your bone marrow to make too many red blood cells. These excess cells thicken your blood, slowing its flow, which may cause serious problems, such as blood clots. PV is a clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorder in which phenotypically normal red cells, granulocytes, and platelets


Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is an enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus and a member of the family Paramyxoviridae. Epidemiology With an attack rate approaching 100% among susceptible individuals, HRSV is a major respiratory pathogen among young children (particularly those 2–3 months of age) and the foremost cause of lower respiratory disease among infants. HRSV accounts


Rhinoviruses are nonenveloped, single-stranded RNA viruses in the family Picornaviridae that together are the major cause of the “common cold” (up to 50% of cases). The three species of rhinovirus (A, B, and C) include around 160 recognized types of human rhinovirus that differ according to their surface proteins. Modes of transmission Rhinoviruses are spread

Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

Normal menstruation typically occurs every 28 days ±7 days. Cycles with intervals longer than 35 days describe a state of oligomenorrhea. Menorrhagia is defined as prolonged or heavy cyclic menstruation. Objectively, menses lasting longer than 7 days or exceeding 80 mL of blood loss. Metrorrhagia describes intermenstrual bleeding. Hypomenorrhea there is diminished flow or shortening


Molluscum contagiosum virus is an obligate human pathogen that causes distinctive proliferative skin lesions. The virus occurs throughout the world, most commonly causing disease in childhood. In hot countries where children are lightly dressed and in close contact with one another, spread within households is not uncommon. The age of peak incidence is reported as


Cellulitis is inflammation, usually infective, of subcutaneous tissue Cellulitis is a common, potentially serious bacterial skin infection. The affected skin appears swollen and red and is typically painful and warm to the touch.Cellulitis usually affects the skin on the lower legs, but it can occur in the face, arms and other areas. Causes Cellulitis occurs


Laryngitis is an inflammation of your voice box (larynx) Causes Viral infections. Bacterial invasion takes place with Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Hemolytic streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus. Exanthemata fevers, such as measles, mumps, and chickenpox. Chronic sinusitis Excessive alcohol use Habitual overuse of your voice (such as in singers or cheerleaders, by speaking too much, speaking

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia [BLOOD CANCER]

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia [BLOOD CANCER] Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is a type of cancer of the white blood cells and bone marrow . It is the most common type of cancer in children, and treatments result in a good chance for a cure. Age of occurance-newbrorn-14years Causes Exposure to ionizing radiation or to chemicals Nuclear reactor accident


HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS INFECTIONS DEFINITION Herpes simplex viruses (HSV-1, HSV-2; Herpesvirus hominis) produce a variety of infections involving mucocutaneous surfaces, the central nervous system (CNS), and visceral organs. RISK FACTOR Oral sex Commercial sex worker Cigarette smoking Sex during menses Intrauterine device Early age of sexual intercourse New or multiple sexual partners Women Sexual activity


PREMENSTRUAL SYNDROME Frequently, women of reproductive age experience symptoms during the late luteal phase of their menstrual cycle, and collectively these complaints are termed premenstrual syndrome (PMS) or premenstrual tension (PMT). Nearly 300 different symptoms have been reported and typically include both psychiatric and physical complaints. SYMPTOMS Symptoms must begin at least 5 days before


Endometriosis Endometriosis is a common benign gynecologic disorder defined as the presence of endometrial glands and stroma outside of the normal location. Risk factors Never giving birth Early menarche Late menopause Heavy menstrual periods that last longer than seven days Having higher levels of estrogen in your body or a greater lifetime exposure to estrogen


Influenza(FLU) The term influenza represents both a clinically defined respiratory illness accompanied by systemic symptoms of fever, malaise, and myalgia and the name of the orthomyxoviruses that cause this syndrome. Three influenza viruses occur in humans: A, B, and C. These have a lipid envelope and prominent spikes that are formed by the two surface

Acute supraspinatus tendinitis

Acute supraspinatus tendinitis Causes 1.Age-As people get older, their tendons become less flexible — which makes them easier to injure. 2.Occupation Repetitive motions Awkward positions Frequent overhead reaching Vibration Forceful exertion Working on computer Heavy manual labor job 3.Sports You may be more likely to develop tendinitis if you participate in certain sports that involve


SHOULDER PAIN ROTATOR CUFF TENDONITIS The rotator cuff is a group of muscles that attach via tendons to the head of the upper arm bone (the humerus). The function of the cuff is to center the head of the humerus in the socket and move the arm. These tendons are in a constant state of


ACUTE PANCREATITIS BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF PANCREATIC EXOCRINE SECRETION The pancreas secretes 1500–3000 mL of isosmotic alkaline (pH >8) fluid per day containing about 20 enzymes. The pancreatic secretions provide the enzymes and bicarbonate needed to affect the major digestive activity of the gastrointestinal tract and provide an optimal pH for the function of these


ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS (Marie strumpelldisease) Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic disease characterised by a progressive inflammatory stiffening of the joints, with a predilection for the joints of the axial skeleton, especially the sacroiliac joints. This is a disease of young adults, more common in males Pathology Sacro-iliac joints are usually the first to get involved; followed


STOMACH CANCER The disease remains the third most frequent cause of worldwide cancer related death. CAUSES Alcohol Smoking Tobacco GERD A diet low in fruits and vegetables Family history of stomach cancer Germline mutation in the E-cadherin gene (CDH1) Mutation of TP53 gene Ingestion of high concentrations of nitrates found in dried,smoked, and salted foods-The

GOLFER’S ELBOW (Medial epicondylitis)

GOLFER’S ELBOW (Medial epicondylitis) This is a condition where the inflammation is at the origin of the flexor tendons at the medial epicondyle of the humerus. Causes The damage is typically related to excess or repeated stress — especially forceful wrist and finger motions. Improper lifting, throwing or hitting, as well as too little warm


COLORECTAL CANCER Cancer of the large bowel is second only to lung cancer as a cause of cancer death. Colon cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the large intestine (colon). The colon is the final part of the digestive tract. CAUSES Family history of colon cancer Low-fiber, high-fat diet.Colon cancer and rectal


TENNIS ELBOW (LATERAL EPICONDYLITIS) This is a condition characterised by pain and tenderness at the lateral epicondyle of the humerus due to non-specific inflammation at the origin of the extensor muscles of the forearm. CAUSES Although, it is sometimes seen in tennis players, other activities such as using Plumbing tools, Painting, Driving screws, Cutting up


CORNS Corns are circumscribed, horny, conical thickenings with the base on the surface and the apex pointing inward and pressing on subjacent structures. TWO VARIETIES: Hard corns, which occur on the dorsa of the toes or on the soles Soft corns, which occur between the toes and are softened by the macerating action of sweat


VERRUCA (WARTS) Warts are caused by human papilloma virus, of which there are more than 100 types. They are transmitted by close contact and auto-inoculation. CAUSES Common warts are caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). The virus is quite common and has more than 100 types, but only a few cause warts on your hands.


ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE(HEART ATTACK) Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is a condition in which there is an inadequate supply of blood and oxygen to a portion of the myocardium; it typically occurs when there is an imbalance between myocardial oxygen supply and demand. Classification 1.Coronary Arterial Syndrome(CAD)-Stable Angina 2.Acute Coronary Syndrome Non-ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (partial


IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME (IBS) Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort and altered bowel habits in the absence of detectable structural abnormalities. IBS symptoms tend to come and go over time and often overlap with other functional disorders such as fibromyalgia, headache, backache, and genitourinary symptoms. CAUSES


FAILURE TO THRIVE Failure to thrive (FTT) is a descriptive term given to infants and young children with malnourishment resulting in inadequate growth. FTT that is symmetric (proportional weight, height/length, and head circumference) suggests long-standing malnutrition, chromosomal abnormalities, congenital infection, or teratogenic exposures. CAUSES Inadequate nutritional intake Poverty Emotional deprivation Rumination Child maltreatment Maternal depression


LUMBAR SPONDYLOSIS(Low Back Pain) Lumbar spondylosis is a normal part of aging.It is the Osteoarthritis of the Lumbar spine may produce low back pain. CAUSES Dehydrated disks.Disks act like cushions between the vertebrae of your spine. By the age of 40, most people’s spinal disks begin drying out and shrinking, which allows more bone-on-bone contact


BENIGN PAROXYSMAL POSITIONAL VERTIGO Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is the most common cause (20–40%) of peripheral vertigo. Age of onset  11–84 years; mean age of onset fourth to fifth decades. Incidence increases with age.Slightly increased incidence in females. CAUSES Most common are closed head injury and vestibular neuronitis (vertigo lasting days) Infections „ Old age


RHINOSINUSITIS (COMMON COLD) Infection and inflammation of nose and sinus CAUSES Approximately 20–30% cases of acute rhinosinusitis are viral. Common viruses are: rhinovirus (most common in adults) ,Corona virus,Parainfluenza viruses, Adenovirus, picorna virus ,Coxsackie ,ECHO viruses ,Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) ,Influenza virus Cold and Hot weather and when the weather changes Swimming and diving: Infected


OTITIS MEDIA (EAR INFECTION) Otitis media (OM) refers to inflammation of middle ear cleft. OM is not only the most common  in children but also a leading cause of hearing loss in children. CAUSES OF Otitis media Bottle feeding (breast feeding is protective)- Feeding bottle: In the supine position, bottle feeding may lead milk to

Rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by a symmetric polyarthritis, the most common form of chronic inflammatory arthritis. Since persistently active RA often results in articular cartilage and bone destruction and functional disability. CLINICAL FEATURES Polyarthritis of peripheral joints with pain, tenderness, and swelling of affected joints Stiffness lasting more


ANXIETY DISORDER Anxiety is the commonest psychiatric symptom in clinical practice and anxiety disorders are one of the commonest psychiatric disorders in general population. Anxiety is a ‘normal’ phenomenon, which is characterised by a state of apprehension or unease arising out of anticipation of danger. SYMPTOMS Tremors Restlessness Muscle twitches Fearful facial expression Palpitations; Tachycardia


MIGRAINE HEADACHE Migraine, the second most common cause of headache. A migraine can cause severe throbbing pain or a pulsing sensation, usually on one side of the head. It’s often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and extreme sensitivity to light and sound. Migraine attacks can last for hours to days, and the pain can be so


ALLERGIC SINUSITIS Sinusitis causes the spaces inside your nose (sinuses) to become inflamed and swollen. This interferes with drainage and causes mucus to build up CAUSES ,RISK FACTORS AND TRIGGERS   DIET-diets low in antioxidants such as vitamin C and vitamin A, magnesium, selenium, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fats (fish oil), Vitamin D deficiency DIET -high


MALARIA Malaria, the most important protozoa disease in humans, is caused by the genus Plasmodium. Four species are pathogenic, P. vivax, P. falciparum, P. malariae and P. ovale, of which the first two occur in India. Mosquitoes usually breed in edges of streams, water tanks, pits, cisterns and overhead tanks fountains burrowed pits, pools, ponds,

Seizures and Epilepsy

Seizures and Epilepsy A seizure is a transient occurrence of signs or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain. Epilepsy describes a condition in which a person has a risk of recurrent seizures due to a chronic, underlying process. CLASSIFICATION OF SEIZURES Focal seizures a.Focal seizures without loss of consciousness.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD)

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) Chronic kidney disease (CKD) encompasses a spectrum of pathophysiologic processes associated with abnormal kidney function and a progressive decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Causes Type 1 or type 2 diabetes High blood pressure Glomerulonephritis Interstitial nephritis Polycystic kidney disease Prolonged obstruction of the urinary tract, from conditions such as enlarged


Infertility Infertility implies apparent failure of a couple to conceive, while sterility indicates absolute inability to conceive, for one or more reasons. If a couple fails to achieve pregnancy after 1 year of ‘unprotected’ and regular intercourse, it is an indication to investigate the couple. 80% of normal couples achieve conception within a year. 50%