Diphtheria is a nasopharyngeal and skin infection caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Toxigenic strains of C. diphtheriae produce a protein toxin that causes systemic toxicity, myocarditis, and polyneuropathy. The toxin is associated with the formation of pseudomembranes in the pharynx during respiratory diphtheria Mode of transmission The secretions and discharges from infected person or carrier are


Polycythemia vera is a type of blood cancer. It causes your bone marrow to make too many red blood cells. These excess cells thicken your blood, slowing its flow, which may cause serious problems, such as blood clots. PV is a clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorder in which phenotypically normal red cells, granulocytes, and platelets


Rhinoviruses are nonenveloped, single-stranded RNA viruses in the family Picornaviridae that together are the major cause of the “common cold” (up to 50% of cases). The three species of rhinovirus (A, B, and C) include around 160 recognized types of human rhinovirus that differ according to their surface proteins. Modes of transmission Rhinoviruses are spread


ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS (Marie strumpelldisease) Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic disease characterised by a progressive inflammatory stiffening of the joints, with a predilection for the joints of the axial skeleton, especially the sacroiliac joints. This is a disease of young adults, more common in males Pathology Sacro-iliac joints are usually the first to get involved; followed

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome(PCOS)

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrinopathy typified by oligo ovulation or anovulation, signs of androgen excess, and multiple small ovarian cysts. Causes Use of certain pain killer- Ibuprofen, diclofenac Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)- Paracetamol Smoking Alcohol Stress Use of antibiotic Lack of physical activity Insecticide,Pesticide,Rodenticide,Weedicide Eating high carbohydrate food Lack


Menopause Menopause is defined as the time of cessation of ovarian function resulting in permanent amenorrhoea. It takes  12 months of amenorrhoea to confirm that menopause. Cessation before age 40, termed premature ovarian failure, is associated with an elevated  follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) Climacteric is the phase of waning ovarian activity, and may begin 2–3 years

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection in any part of your urinary system — your kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra. Most infections involve the lower urinary tract — the bladder and the urethra. UTI encompasses a variety of clinical entities Cystitis (symptomatic disease of the bladder) Pyelonephritis (symptomatic disease


Infertility Infertility implies apparent failure of a couple to conceive, while sterility indicates absolute inability to conceive, for one or more reasons. If a couple fails to achieve pregnancy after 1 year of ‘unprotected’ and regular intercourse, it is an indication to investigate the couple. 80% of normal couples achieve conception within a year. 50%