Pertussis is an acute infection of the respiratory tract caused by Bordetella pertussis. The word pertussis means “violent cough,” which aptly describes the most consistent and prominent feature of the illness. The inspiratory sound made at the end of an episode of paroxysmal coughing gives rise to the common name for the illness, “whooping cough.


Rhinoviruses are nonenveloped, single-stranded RNA viruses in the family Picornaviridae that together are the major cause of the “common cold” (up to 50% of cases). The three species of rhinovirus (A, B, and C) include around 160 recognized types of human rhinovirus that differ according to their surface proteins. Modes of transmission Rhinoviruses are spread


Molluscum contagiosum virus is an obligate human pathogen that causes distinctive proliferative skin lesions. The virus occurs throughout the world, most commonly causing disease in childhood. In hot countries where children are lightly dressed and in close contact with one another, spread within households is not uncommon. The age of peak incidence is reported as


Tetanus is an acute disease manifested by skeletal muscle spasm and autonomic nervous system disturbance. It is caused by a powerful neurotoxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium tetani Causes C. tetani is an anaerobic, gram-positive, spore-forming rod whose spores are highly resilient and can survive readily in the environment throughout the world. Spores resist boiling

Vaginal fungal infection(candidiasis)

This infection is most commonly caused by Candida albicans, which can be found in the vaginas of asymptomatic patients and is a commensal of the mouth, rectum, and vagina. Risk factors Warmer climates Obese patients Immunosuppression Diabetes mellitus Pregnancy Recent broad-spectrum antibiotic use Oral-genital sex Oral contraceptives or hormone therapy Oral sex Douching Cigarette smoking


DELAYED PUBERTY Puberty is said to be delayed when the breast tissue and/or pubic hair have not appeared by 13–14 years or menarche appears as late as 16 years. Causes of delayed puberty Constitutional delay Chemical farming -Insecticide,Pesticide,Rodenticide,Weedicide Environmental toxin Junk food Too much exercise Severe lack of eating (anorexia) Chronic illness Malnutrition Primary hypothyroidism


PITYRIASIS VERSICOLOR   (TINEA VERSICOLOR)-Fungal infection  DEFINITION This is a mild, chronic infection of the skin caused by Malassezia yeasts, and characterized by discrete or confluent, scaly, discoloured or depigmented areas, mainly on the upper trunk. CAUSATIVE AGENT Pityrosporum ovale and P. orbiculare Malassezia furfur Colonization by these species is especially dense in the scalp, the


  LICHEN PLANUS (LP) Lichen planus , the most typical and best characterized lichenoid dematosis, is an idiopathic inflammatory skin disease affecting the skin and mucosal membranes, often with a chronic course with relapses and periods of remission. CAUSES Drugs-including antimicrobials, antihypertensives, antimalarials, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, diuretics, metals, non‐ steroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) and more recently


MUCORMYCOSIS (Black Fungi) Mucormycosis represents a group of life-threatening infections caused by fungi of the order Mucorales. Among the Mucorales, Rhizopus oryzae ,  Rhizopus microsporus, Rhizomucor pusillus, Lichtheimia corymbifera common causes of mucormycosis. PATHOGENESIS The Mucorales are ubiquitous environmental fungi to which humans are constantly exposed. These fungi cause infection primarily in patients with diabetes,


PNEUMONIA Pneumonia is defined as acute inflammation of the lung parenchyma distal to the terminal bronchioles (consisting of the respiratory bronchiole, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs and alveoli). Causes 1.Inhalation of the microbes present in the air 2.Aspiration of organisms from the nasopharynx or oropharynx. 3.Haematogenous spread from a distant focus of infection. 4.Direct spread from

Infectious Mononucleosis

Infectious Mononucleosis Causative agent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the cause of heterophile-positive infectious mononucleosis (IM), which is characterized by fever, sore throat, lymphadenopathy, and atypical lymphocytosis. These infections are most common in early childhood, with a second peak during late adolescence. By adulthood, more than 90% of individuals have been infected and have antibodies to


IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA Iron deficiency anemia is due to insufficient iron.In Iron deficiency anemia  hemoglobin synthesis is impaired, resulting in anemia and reduced o2 delivery to tissue. CAUSES OF IRON DEFICIENCY Rapid growth in infancy or adolescence Pregnancy Gastrointestinal bleeding can result from regular use of some over-the-counter pain relievers, especially aspirin. Erythropoietin therapy Chronic


ADENOID HYPERTROPHY (ENLARGED ADENOIDS) Adenoid hypertrophy is the unusual growth of Adenoid. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY The nasopharyngeal tonsil, commonly called “adenoids”, is situated at the junction of the roof and posterior wall of the nasopharynx. It is composed of vertical ridges of lymphoid tissue separated by deep clefts. Adenoid tissue is present at birth, shows physiological enlargement


 PEMPHIGUS VULGARIS Pemphigus refers to a group of autoantibody-mediated intraepidermal blistering diseases characterized by loss of cohesion between epidermal cells (a process termed acantholysis). Manual pressure to the skin of these patients may elicit the separation of the epidermis (Nikolsky’s sign). Associated diseases PV has been associated with many other autoimmune diseases, particularly thyroid disease

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome DEFINITION Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a disorder characterized by persistent and unexplained fatigue resulting in severe impairment in daily functioning. The majority of patients (75%) are women, generally 30–45 years old. Causes Predisposing Factors Childhood trauma (physical, emotional abuse; emotional and physical neglect) Physical inactivity during childhood Premorbid psychiatric illness or


URTICARIA AND ANGIOEDEMA  DEFINITION Urticaria and angioedema represent the same pathophysiologic process occurring at different levels of the skin. Urticaria involves dilation of vascular structures in the superficial dermis. Angioedema originates from the deeper dermis and subcutaneous tissues. Urticaria can occur on any area of the body as well-circumscribed wheals with erythematous raised serpiginous borders

Kawasaki Disease

Kawasaki Disease Kawasaki disease (KD) is characterized by multisystem involvement and inflammation of small- to medium-sized arteries with resulting aneurysm formation. KD is the second most common vasculitis of childhood. KD most commonly occurs in children younger than 5 years of age, with a peak between 2 and 3 years. A seasonal variability has been

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an immune-mediated chronic intestinal condition. Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD) are the two major types of IBD. Ulcerative colitis. This condition involves inflammation and ulcers along the superficial lining of large intestine (colon) and rectum. Crohn’s disease. This type of IBD is characterized by inflammation of the lining

Wilson’s Disease

Wilson’s Disease Wilson’s disease is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the ATP7B gene. Wilson’s disease causes copper to accumulate in your liver, brain and other vital organs. Copper plays a key role in the development of healthy nerves, bones, collagen and the skin pigment melanin. Normally, copper is absorbed from your food,

Uterine fibroids(Leiomyomas )

Uterine fibroids(Leiomyomas ) Leiomyomas are benign smooth muscle neoplasms that typically originate from the myometrium. They are often referred to as uterine myoma Causes 1.Estrogen Effects -Uterine leiomyomas are estrogen- and progesterone-sensitive tumors .Consequently, they develop during the reproductive years. After menopause, leiomyomas generally shrink, and new tumor development is infrequent. Leiomyomas themselves create a


HEEL PAIN- PLANTAR FASCITIS This is a common cause of pain in the heel. It occurs as a result of inflammation of the plantar aponeurosis at its attachment on the tuberosity of the calcaneum. Symptoms Stabbing pain in the bottom of your foot near the heel. The pain is usually the worst with the first


TONSILLITIS The tonsils are the immune system’s first line of defense against bacteria and viruses that enter your mouth. This function may make the tonsils particularly vulnerable to infection and inflammation. Tonsillitis is inflammation of the tonsils, two oval-shaped pads of tissue at the back of the throat. Tonsillitis most commonly affects children between preschool


BREAST FEEDING Breast milk is an ideal food for neonates. It is the best gift that a mother can give to her baby. Mothers milk as the sole source of nutrition for the first 6 months of life, with continued intake for the first year, and as long as desired thereafter. Breast feeding has short-


PSORIASIS A chronic, recurrent disorder. Classic lesion is a well-marginated, erythematous plaque with silvery-white surface scale. Distribution includes extensor surfaces (i.e., knees, elbows, and buttocks); may also involve palms and scalp (particularly anterior scalp margin). Triggers Infections, such as strep throat or skin infections Injury to the skin, such as a cut or scrape, a