Diphtheria is a nasopharyngeal and skin infection caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Toxigenic strains of C. diphtheriae produce a protein toxin that causes systemic toxicity, myocarditis, and polyneuropathy. The toxin is associated with the formation of pseudomembranes in the pharynx during respiratory diphtheria Mode of transmission The secretions and discharges from infected person or carrier are

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an immune-mediated chronic intestinal condition. Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD) are the two major types of IBD. Ulcerative colitis. This condition involves inflammation and ulcers along the superficial lining of large intestine (colon) and rectum. Crohn’s disease. This type of IBD is characterized by inflammation of the lining

Acute renal failure

Acute renal failure (ARF) ARF is defined as an abrupt or rapid decline in the ability of the kidneys to remove waste and concentrate urine without  losing electrolytes of the body.  This condition is usually marked with rapid reduction in urine output, rise in serum creatinine concentration and rise in blood urea nitrogen [BUN] concentration. Risk